S1) Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in S1) Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health Deck (10)
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1

How can socio-economic status be measured ?

- Individual occupation 

- Area of residence

- Health status (life expectancy & infant mortality)

2

Deprivation is strongly associated with ill health. 

Explain the relationship between these two factors

The more deprived a person is, the larger the proportion of their life will be spent in ill health and the more like they are to die at a young age

3

The Black Report offers explanations, theories and pathways for inequalities in health.

Outline the explanation proposed in Artefact

- Health inequalities are evident due to the way statistics are collected

- Concerns are about quality of data and method of measurement

- Discredited as more often data problems lead to underestimation of inequalities

4

The Black Report offers explanations, theories and pathways for inequalities in health.

Outline the explanation proposed in Social Selection

- Direction of causation is from health to social position

- Sick individuals move down social hierarchy, healthy individuals move up

- Plausible explanation but minor contribution

5

The Black Report offers explanations, theories and pathways for inequalities in health.

Outline the explanation proposed in Behaviour-cultural

- Ill health is due to people's choices/decision, knowledge and goals

- People from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to engage in more health-damaging behaviours

- Limited as behaviours are outcomes of social processes, not simply individual choice

6

The Black Report offers explanations, theories and pathways for inequalities in health.

Outline the explanation proposed in Materialist

- Inequalities in health arise from differential access to material resources – low income; unemployment; work environments; low control over job; poor housing conditions

- Most plausible

7

The Black Report offers explanations, theories and pathways for inequalities in health.

Outline the explanation proposed in Psychosocial

Psychosocial pathways act in addition to direct effects of absolute material living standards

- Some stressors are distributed on a social gradient of psychosocial factors – e.g. negative life events, social support, autonomy at work; job security

8

The Black Report offers explanations, theories and pathways for inequalities in health.

Outline the explanation proposed in Income distribution

Relative (not average) income affects health

- Countries with greater income inequalities have greater health inequalities

- The most egalitarian (not the richest) societies that have the best health

9

Which services do more deprived groups use?

- GP services 

- Emergency services

10

Which services do more deprived groups under use?

- Preventive services e.g screening, LTC reviews, outpatients

- Specialist services e.g. CABG and cancer treatments