Define the terms endergonic and exergonic
- Exergonic: a reaction where the energy released is greater than the energy input
- Endergonic: a reaction where the energy input is greater than the energy released
What is the ATP-ADP cycle?
The ATP-ADP cycle is the cycle that couples endergonic reactions with exergonic reactions
What does the ATP-ADP cycle do?
- It allows for the controlled release of energy by oxidation
- Some of the energy is conserved by the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi and the remainder is lost as heat
What is cell metabolism?
Cell metabolism is the highly integrated network of chemical reactions in distinct metabolic pathways that occur within cells
Define the terms catabolism and anabolism
- Catabolism involves the breakdown of larger molecules to smaller ones
- Anabolism involves the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones
Compare and contrast catabolic and anabolic pathways
- Catabolic pathways are oxidative, release large amounts of free energy, and produce some intermediary metabolites
- Anabolic pathways are reductive, and use energy and intermediary metabolites from catabolism to synthesise cell components
Identify the 3 major carrier molecules
Represent the 3 major carrier molecules in their oxidised and reduced forms
- Oxidised forms: NAD+, NADP+, FAD
- Reduced forms: NADH + H+, NADPH + H+, FAD2H
Why must carrier molecules cycle between oxidative and reductive processes to maintain cell function?
To allow for both oxidation reactions (require NAD+) and reduction reactions (require NADH + H+) to occur
What is Free Energy?
Free Energy is the energy released in an exergonic reaction that is available to do work (ΔG)
What are the four steps in carbohydrate metabolism?
- Stage 1: Breakdown to monomers
- Stage 2: Breakdown to metabolic intermediates
- Stage 3: TCA (Kreb's) cycle
- Stage 4: Oxidative phosphorylation
In stage 1 of metabolism, carbohydrates are digested at the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestines
Identify the respective enzymes involved
- Saliva: amylase
- Pancreas: amylase
- Small intestine: lactase, sucrase, pancreatic amylase, isomaltase
Why can't cellulose be digested by humans?
No enzymes to break down the β 1-4 linkages present in dietary fibres i.e. no cellulase
Identify 3 clinical features of primary lactase deficiency
- Absence of lactase persistence allele
- Only occurs in adults
- Highest prevalence in Northwest Europe
Identify 3 clinical features of secondary lactase deficiency
- Caused by injury to small intestine
- Occurs in both infants and adults
- Generally reversible
Identify four clinical conditions which could cause injury to the small intestine, leading to secondary lactase deficiency
- Coeliac disease
- Crohn's disease
- Ulcerative colitis
Describe 3 features of congenital lactase deficiency
- Extremely rare
- Autosomal recessive defect in lactase gene
- Cannot digest breast milk
What foods should someone with a lactase deficiency abstain from?
Identify 4 symptoms associated with lactase deficiency?
- Rumbling stomach
How are monosaccharides absorbed?
- Active transport by SGLT1 into intestinal epithelial cells
- Active transport by GLUT2 into blood supply
- Facilitated diffusion by transport proteins GLUT1-GLUT5 into cells
Identify 4 tissues which have an absolute requirement for glucose
- Lens of eye
- Red blood cells
- Innermost cells of kidney medulla
Describe the glucose dependency of the brain
The CNS prefers glucose as a fuel but can use ketone bodies for some energy requirements in times of starvation
Where does glycolysis occur?
- Occurs in all tissues
- Occurs in cytosol
What kind of process is glycolysis?
- Exergonic process
- Oxidative process
Identify the 4 functions of glycolysis
- Oxidation of glucose
- NADH production
- Synthesis of ATP (2 ATP per glucose molecule)
- Produces C6 and C3 intermediates (no loss of CO2)
Identify the enzymes at point 1, 3 and 10
1 - Hexokinase
3 - Phosphofructokinase-1
10 - Pyruvate kinase
Describe Phase 1 of Glycolysis (reactions 1-3)
- Phosphorylation of glucose to G-6-P
- Polarised glucose is more reactive & cannot return down plasma membrane
- Input: 2 moles ATP per mole glucose
Describe Phase 2 of Glycolysis (reactions 4-10)
- Reaction 4: C6 --> 2C3 units
- Reaction 6: Reducing power captured (NADH)
- Reaction 7&10: ATP synthesis (substrate level phosphorylation)
Identify the irreversible reactions in glycolysis
- Reactions 1
- Reaction 3
- Reaction 10
Explain the allosteric regulation of glycolysis by phosphofructokinase
Allosteric regulation (muscle):
- Inhibited by high ATP
- Stimulated by high AMP