Flashcards in Ruminants Deck (29)
What is the causative agent of FMD?
Aphthovirus, family picornaviridae
What are the most common clinical signs of FMD?
High fever, drooling/salivation, lameness (spreads quickly), vesicles, erosions, abortion
What species is most commonly affected by FMD? Which species are carriers?
Bovine (most susceptible) and pigs commonly affected; buffalo often asymptomatic carriers
What is often the first sign of FMD infection?
What are the clinical signs of scrapie?
Vary; intense pruritus, progressive neurological signs; wt. loss w/ normal appetite, head tremors, behavior change
How is scrapie prevented?
Cull +s, maintain closed herd; incinerate or alkaline digestion carcasses
How is scrapie transmitted?
Contact w/ placental/allantoic fluid
What tissue(s) should be submitted for diagnosis of scrapie? Antemortem tests?
Obex immunohistochemistry gold standard, cerebellum (atypical scrapie), and lymphoid tissue also used; ELISA screening of brain/lymphoid tissues also;
antemortem tests: biopsy of lymphoid tissue in 3rd eyelid (IHC), tonsils, or detection of prions in placenta
What is the treatment for scrapie?
What are the clinical signs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)?
Adult cattle (>2yrs), insidious onset of abnormal behavior, aggression, ataxia, reduced milk yield
What is the primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium, subsp. paratuberculosis?
Fecal-oral #1; also in colostrum; silent shedders #1 cause of infection
What is the gold standard test and which US govt. agency is approved to test for Mycobacterium avium, subsp. paratuberculosis?
Culture of feces/postmortem tissue; USDA
What is the prognosis for a cow with clinical signs of Mycobacterium avium, subsp. paratuberculosis?
Grave--no cure; death inevitable with apparent clinical signs
What is the common presentation of ketosis in cattle?
ADR--depression, partial anorexia in early lactation
What 2 things are required for ketosis to occur?
High glucose demand AND high level of fat mobilization
What are the signs of nervous ketosis?
CNS--circling, staggering, bellowing, licking/chewing, trembling, aggression
What is the treatment of choice for ketosis?
Restore normoglycemia + decrease serum ketone bodies--provide glucose/precursors: IV glucose (50% dextrose), glucocorticoids (only if NOT pregnant), propylene glycol drenches, force feed
What has an increased incidence of occurring in herds with ketosis problems?
What is the test of choice for bovine leukosis (BLV)?
What is the classic presentation of BLV?
Adult dairy cows, wt. loss, dec. milk production, poor appetite, +/- external masses, BLV+
What is the etiology of BLV?
Retrovirus--infection permanent, no treatment
What is the classical presentation of a cow with a left displaced abomasum?
Adult dairy cow, ADR (dec. appetite, dec. milk production), "ping"
What is the characteristic lab work of a LDA?
Decreased K, Cl, Ca--metabolic alkalosis, paradoxic aciduria
What is contraindicated in RDA?
Rolling (only used in LDA, but likely to recur)
What is the treatment of choice for listeria?
Penicillin, sulfonamides, tetracyclines (avian, mammals), OR ampicillin for 2-4wks; supportive therapy
Dorsomedial strabismus (stargazing) is pathognomonic for what condition?
What is the classic presentation of polioencephalomalacia?
Fast-growing calf or lamb, NEUROLOGIC, blind, staggering, down (bilaterally symmetric signs of cerebral dysfunction)
What is the treatment for polioencephalomalacia?
Thiamine (Vit. B1) supplementation--IV initially, then IM/SQ