What makes up the respiratory disease complex?
1) IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/Rednose)
2) P13 (Parainfluenza Type 3)
3) BSRV (Bovine Syncytial Respiratory Virus) +/- Pasterurella multocida (bacterial infection secondary to viral infection)
How is respiratory disease transmitted?
Aerosol-Morbidity directly related to management techniques (Contagion depends on how much virus is put into the air and how closely the infected animals are confined)
What are some clinical signs of respiratory diseases?
1) Fever (103-105)
2) Loss of appetite
3) Dry, hacking cough (+ tracheal reaction)
4) Serous nasal/ocular discharge
5) Rhinitis/conjunctivitis +/-
How is respiratory diseases prevented?
-Vaccination: Vaccinate calves pre-weaning and again upon entering population dense feedlot situation. Vaccinate cows annually pre-calving.
T/F You cannot differentiate specific disease agents by symptoms for respiratory disease.
T/F Recovery from natural infection with IBR/PI3/BSRV results in lifelong immunity.
What is BVD (GI disease) and what impact does it have on the herd?
-Bovine Virus Diarrhea/Scours(diarrhea)
-BVD infection can result in immunosuppression: may be factor in susceptibility to other infectious diseases.
-High morbidity (approaches 100%)
-Low mortality (<5%)
-1-2% of cattle remain viremic for life (reservoirs of infection/continue to get it)
-Mucosal disease(once virus reaches mucosa): Morbidity low (5-10% of animals which contract BVD), Mortality high (95-100%)
Understand fluid replacement in calves.
1) Replacement fluids are administered in addition to the calf’s maintenance requirement for milk.
2) Colostrum requirement: 1 pint per/20 lbs body weight within 1 hour of birth, repeat within 12 hours (because colostrum reaches its peak after 24 hours)
3) Maintenance milk requirement: 10% calf’s body weight in milk or milk replacer/day
4) Multiply percentage of dehydration by weight of calf (in kilograms) to determine the number of liters of electrolyte solution required for replacement.
Symptoms of rabies are interchangeable with those of ____
T/F Always assume an animal is rabid until proven otherwise.
Understand Choke and all of its implications.
1) Esophageal Obstruction (choke)-Foreign body obstructs esophagus
2) Metabolic acidosis due to excessive loss of bicarbonate through saliva
Understand hardware disease, how it happens, how it impacts an animal, and how it's diagnosed.
-Traumatic Reticulitis/Pericarditis (hardware disease): Consumption of metal objects in pasture or hay
-It causes reticuloperitonitis- perforation of the wall of the reticulum(honey comb-like/behind it is heart) allows leakage of ingesta and bacteria, which contaminates the peritoneal cavity
-Symptoms/diagnosis: Sharp drop in milk production, Arched back, Grunting on xiphoid pressure
-Treatment: rumen magnets
Understand rumenal tympany, both bloat and displaced abomasum.
1) Rumenal tympany (bloat): Excessive consumption of lush/rich pasture causing frothy (bubbles).
2) Symptoms: Distention of left flank, dyspnea, collapse, pings on auscultation (from gas)
3) Treatment: Surfactants (oil), Trocharization of rumen (poke hole in paralumbar fossa to relieve the gas)
4) Displaced abomasum: Abomasum becomes distended with gas, and/or fluid and shifts to an abnormal position-between the rumen and left abdominal wall
5) LDA (left displaced abomasum): more common, paralumbar fossa is sunken in-lay the cow on the right side, take the legs, and flip it to the left side to shift everything back in place 6) RDA (right displaced abomasum): only can be fixed with surgery ASAP
T/F For all diseases, if the disease causes abortion than you can vaccinate prior to breeding or while pregnant.
Johne’s disease: understand the impact on the herd, transmission and cure.
1) Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease/fungus)
2) Transmission: oral, but the bacteria is shed in feces and secreted in milk including colostrum
3) Cure: Vaccinations, Do not feed raw or unpastuerized milk, Prevent offspring from nursing on infected dam, Avoid manure contamination of feed/bunks/troughs, Premise disinfection- uses chemical labeled “tuberculocidal”
4) How it effects herd: can take >5 years to eliminate from herd
Wooden tongue and lumpy jaw: impact on herd, causes, prevention.
1) Actinobacillus ligniersii (wooden tongue): infection of the tongue
2) Causes: Infects via wounds or when cutting teeth
3) Prevention (same for lumpy jaw): Avoid sharp objects that cows consume
4) Impact on herd: Not transmitted between animals
5) Actinomycosis (Lumpy jaw): Osteomyelitis (bone infection) of the jaw
6) Causes: The bacterium invades tissue through breaks in the lining of the mouth caused by eating rough forage
Understand infectious keratitis and its implications on the herd.
1) Pinkeye/Moraxella bovis
2) Transmitted by flying insects and symptoms are an overspill of tears
SCC-what is the impact on the animal/herd.
1) Squamous cell carcinoma (cancer eye)
2) Caused by solar radiation, mostly in Hereford cattle (unpigmented skin)
3) Treatment is enucleation (take out eye), expensive surgery so leads to slaughter
Understand urethral obstruction.
1) Urethral obstruction-Urethral calculi/water belly
2) Urinary calculi (stones) lodges in urethra
3) Partial obstruction—urine dribbling, Complete obstruction—urethra/bladder rupture
What is the cause of the largest economic loss in the dairy industry?
Mastitis-understand how it happens, what is the test to diagnose and how to prevent.
1) Inflammatory disease of the mammary glands
2) Cause: Bacteria/fungi/yeast/spirochetes/trauma. Sanitation of milking machine/cow’s udder. Route of infection-ascending via teat canal (goes up)
3) Tests: California Mastitis Test (Mix with of reagent get ‘Gel’ positive for mastitis), Strip cup (color, odor, consistency, clots/flakes), In-line filters
4) Prevention: a clean, stress-free environment
5) Treatment: Intramammary infusion of infected quarters, Systemic antibiotics
1) Bang’s disease/Brucella abortus
2) Transmitted through bacteria shed in milk (aborted fetuses), reproductive tract discharges (sex)
3) vaccinate to prevent
Milk fever (metabolic disease): how it happens and to whom.
1) Post-parturient paresis (Milk fever)
2) Usually within 72 hours (greatest milk let down) caused by low calcium
3) sternal recumbency with head tucked into flank (swan position)
4) Treatment is IV calcium (levels are 3-7 mg/dl when the normal 10 mg/dl)
Ketosis: how it happens and to whom.
1) Energy absorption cannot match energy demands for milk yield.
2) Primary Ketosis: Improper nutrition -Secondary Ketosis: concurrent disease, lameness, dystocia, retained placenta, milk-fever, fat cow-syndrome, mastitis
3) Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation.
Rotavirus/Coronavirus is present only in the _____ and does not enter the body.
How can treat Clostridial diseases? What can they cause?
1) penicillin, exposure to oxygen
2) septicemia and toxemia
T/F Clostrdial diseases are aerobic.
1) Cl. chauvei
2) Cl. septicum
3) Cl. novyi
4) Cl. hemolyticum
5) Cl. perfringens Type C
2) Malignant edema "big head"
3) Black's disease/fluke liver
4) Redwater disease
5) Hemorrhagic Enteritis-hemoglobinuria
What disease is this?
Respiratory disease (they all have nasal discharge-specifically Bovine Rhinotracheitis/rednose)
What disease is this?
BVD (Bovine Virus Disease/Mucosal Disease)