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Flashcards in RTS 1 CVD And CHD Deck (20)
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What is the most common cause of death? How many people die from this a year?

CVD (cardiovascular disease)
198000 deaths a year
more than 1 in 3 people die from CVD each year


How much decline are Lifestyle changes supposed to have on CHD mortality events each year?

A decline of 58% seen with lifestyle changes
Not one hundred percent accurate as this info doesnt come from randomised controlled trials


What are the 5 As of smoking cessation?

Ask about and record smoking status.
 Advise smokers of the benefits of stopping
 Assess motivation to stop - and reinforce.
 Assist smokers to stop
 Arrange referral to local smoking cessation services.


With smoking cessation, are relapses normal?

You should advise smoker these are normal and it may take 3-4 attempts to succeed!


What do NICE recommend smokers should use to try and quit?

Nicotine Replacement Therapy
And ideally accompanied by a behavioural support programme


Who is NRT suitable for and who should be cautioned?

Suitable for anyone over 12 years
Suitable for pregnant and breast feeding
Should be used with caution in CVD, kidney or liver disease


What products are available for NRT?

Patches – 16hr, 24hr
Gum – 2mg, 4mg
Lozenges – 1,2,4mg
Sublingual tablets – 2mg
 Inhalator
Oromucosal spray


Can more than one NRT method be used at a time? When should smokers aim to quit by?

Aim to quite by 12 weeks


Max puffs of an NRT inhalator?

Maximum 12 puffs per day
These should be used when the person has tried in past to quit before
Or may use niquitin gum 2mg, have one when needed. Max 15 a day.


To improve diet, you should replace saturated and TRANS fat with?

Unsaturated fat

Should also eat omega 3 fatty acids


An extra ____Calories a day can result in 1⁄2 stone weight gain in one year




BMI = weight (Kg)/ (height)2 (m)
≤18.5 = underweight
18.6-24.9 = ideal
25-29.9 = overweight (low health risk) 30-40 = obese (moderate health risk)
>40 = morbidly obese (high health risk)


People who Want to drink alcohol should only have ___ units a day. This decreases their risk of CVD

1-2 units

For men this would be 21 units a week
For women this would be 14 units a week


Who is Aspirin given to OTC (what risk of CVD do they have)?

Traditionally, given to patients with 10 year CVD risk over 20%
Over 50’s, patients with elevated blood pressure, diabetes’
However recently it's been stated that;
‘the benefits and risks should be balanced for each individual’


What classification is Simvastatin?

(switched from POM in 2004)


What does Simvastatin OTC do?

Decreases LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol)
Increases HDL cholesteol (good cholesterol)

Never really a success


What class of drug is Orlistat (alli)

(switched from POM in 2009)


Who is Orlistat licensed for?

People over 18 years, with a BMI over 25


What do Orlistat supposedly do?
What does it actually do?

Marketed as ‘weight loss aid which can boost weight loss by 50% when added to a reduced calorie, lower fat diet’

Realistically it can help you loose 1-2lbs a week, by inhibition of Gastric Lipase enzymes, blocking up to 25% fat absorption


What does diabetes increase the risk of?

And all the risk factors associated!

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