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Flashcards in Romans Deck (49)
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1

Romulus and Remus

mythical founders of Rome
raised by a wolf

2

How is Rome founded?

Romulus kills Remus and builds Rome
Founded in 753 BC
People called "Latins"

3


Etruscans

1. Ruled Latins 616 BC

4

Etruscan influences

1. first sewers and walls
2. building techniques
3. alphabet and number system
4. Governing system
5. Gladiator, chariot races
6. Artistic influences

5

Roman Republic 509 BC (established because Romans hated Etruscan kings)

1. Elected officials as governors
2. No written constitution
3. Division of power

6

Patricians

Wealthy aristocrats
ruling class (Senators, judges)
Can Veto
Descendants of founding fathers
Education important

7

Plebians

common people
can hold public office (counsels, tribunes)
can own farms and shops
can marry Patricians
right to vote
Plebian women had more freedom than Patrician women

8

Roman Forum

place for political talk
connection to land and farming (was noble way to make money)

9

Roman Expansion

Italy to Sicily then other surrounding areas

10

Punic War I

Carthage stronger at first
Roman built up army and won Punic War I

11

Punic War 2

Hannibal invades Rome with war elephants
Scipio beat back Hannibal

12

Rome as dominant force went back to Carthage and

Completely destroyed it.
Enslaved all people.
Banned people from living there.

13

Greek Annexation

Rome added Greece to empire after defeated Persia with the Greeks
Adopted many aspects of their culture (Gods, archictecture)

14

Problems in Rome

Very large area so difficult to control
Main problem was social class

15

Freedman

freed from slavery
little rights
if have documents, cannot be slaves again
can own farms and shops

16

Slaves

Work for wealthy
can be sold
can buy their freedom

17

Gaius Marius attempts as reform that failed

Opened military up to anybody
Eliminated property restrictions
Result: people with no money or property joined army

18

First Triumvirate

Caesar, Crassus and Pompey; Crassus died and Caesar and Pompey had civil war

19

Caesar

1. popular with Plebians
2. Senators declared him enemy of state
3. Caesar invaded Rome

20

Powers of Dictator

1. Chief executive of state
2. leader of army
3. ability to rule by decree

21

Caesar's social reforms

1. Gave citizenship to people in provinces
2. Land to veterans
3. changed calendar
4. Established a police force

22

Assassination of Caesar

Roman senators feared he was becoming too powerful;
stabbed him 23 times on March 15th

23

Second Triumvirate

Lepidus, Marc Antony, Octavian (Caesar's adopted son);
another civil war; Octavian won

24

Octavian became Augustus

careful to not call himself "king"
"Princeps" first among equals
Senate gave him title of Augustus (revered one)

25

Augustus

Reign 40 years
Rebuilt Rome after Civil wars
Fire departments
Kept Food and water for hard times

26

Pax Romana (ended in 180 AD)

Stable govt
strong legal system
trade and prosperity
peace

27

Life for Plebeians

Bread and Circuses: giving food and entertainment to prevent poor from rioting

28

Entertainment enjoyed by rich and poor alike

1. Many took place in Coliseum:
chariot races
gladiator matches
animal battles
2. dancers, jugglers
3. public baths, steam rooms

29

Paterfamilias

family father

30

influence of Rome on modern life

1. science & engineering (aqueducts, concrete)
2. Architecture (The arch is seen in many places)
3. Language (Latin led to Spanish, French and Italian); many English words derived from Latin