Flashcards in Roman Republic Deck (27)
Impact of Etruscans on early Italian development
-developed and expanded trade routes = cultural contact
-introduction of a complex irrigation system = increased agricultural production
-increased puplation resulted in sity-states
Reasons for the rise of Rome
1) Rome's geographical position on the Italian Peninsula
2) development of a republic gov't increased citizen involvement and loyalty of masses
3) early military successes = nationalism & cultural superiority
4)early Roman expansion was successful b/c of fair and restrained treatment of conquered city-states
5) Periods of stron positive leadership
6) periods of instablility lead to positive effective change
What was Rome's "defensive philosophy"?
"get them before they get you"
Know the outcome and impact of 2nd Punic War
outcome: Hannibal is forced to flee and Carthage is defeated.
1) Carthage loses all terriroty (except city)
2) Carthage has to destroy navy
3) pay war reparations
4)Rome becomes ruler of Western Mediterranean
Problems with Rome during late Republic Age
1) open rebellion in outlying provinces
2) Rotation of the politcal system protected aristocratic interests but not middle class
3) uneven distribution of wealth
4) more slave labor = less small farmer
5) attempts for reform resisted by aristocrats
6) political power passed to individual generals
Reforms by Julius Caesar
-paid each soldier $3,000
-hosted a feast for all Roman citizens
-increased senate from 600 to 900 members
-distributed land to veterans and poor
-required a test for grain handout
-took a census of Italy
-recreated the calender with 365 days
-reduced the number of slaves
Why did Carthage and Rome become bitter rivals?
they both fought for control of the western Mediterranean
Who was Tiberius?
ruled during death of Jesus; son of Augustus; out of paranoia, he fled to Capri
Impact of plebian sit-down strike in Rome
Aristocrats allow Plebian Assembly to select 2 reps (tributes) which will "advise" the aristocratic Senate of plebian needs
Who was Hannibal?
son of Hamiclar; elected commander after the death of Hasdrubal the Handsome
Reforms of the Gracchus brothers? (Tiberius & Gauis
1) encourage colonization of dispossessed farmers
2) divide state owned land among farmers
3) sell low cost grain to the urban poor
5) extend political citizenshhip to all italians
What happened to the Gracchus brothers?
They were murdered because aristocrats didn't like what they were doing
Impact of corrupt generals, high inflation, and political assassination in Rome at the end of the Republican Age
Republican Rome is dying!
Who made up the First Triumvirate?
Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
Who was Bibulus?
-in a co-consulship with Caesar
-Caesar had him harrassed to such an extent he wouldn't go out in public
What reforms did Caesar make as consul in 59 BCE?
1)redistributed land to the poor and to Pompey's veterans
2) started a written record of Senate meetings
Why did Caesar think the governorship of Gaul was a better job than being consul of Rome?
he got an army
Who was Vercingetorix?
he led a massive revolt against Caesar in Gaul. Caesar defeated him during the Siege of Alesia, marched him into Rome in chains, and executed him
Why does the First Triumvirate break up?
Crassus was killed in battle in Syria. It became a showdown between Pompey and Caesar for power
Describe the conditions in Rome in 53 BCE
corruption; bribery; murder (political assassination); gang violence; little or no police force; the assemblies were sometimes held by force
Who did Roman aristocrats suppor after the death of Crassus?
Who were the Populares and Optimates?
Populares = (Caesar) the party of the people
Optimates = (Pompey/Crassus) party of the aristocrats
Will Durant -- "Democracy had fallen by Plato's formula, ......"
...liberty had become license, and chaos begged an end to liberty"
With what action did Caesar initate civil war in Rome?
he crosses the Rubican River. "the die is cast"
What steps did Caesar take toward peace as he marched on Rome?
-didn't confiscate estates of his enemies
-all neutrals were his friends
-sent a message to Lentulus
-wrote to Cicero
What steps did Caesar take as consul in 48 BCE?
-ordered all debt be repaid
-capped interest at 1% per month
-forbid enslavement for debt
-distributed corn to the needy
-cancelled all sentences of banishment
-pardoned all aristocrats returning from exile