Roman Italy and Tiberius Gracchus Flashcards Preview

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After 201 BCE

Rome's influence across the Med expanded, Rome defeated the Macedonians, the Greeks, Antiochus III, destroyed Carthage and pacified some of Spain


What to do with conquered lands?

Ager publicus was used to supplement smaller plots.
Money from conquest invested into slaves, property and equipment.


The problem - Appian, Civil Wars 1.7

Small number became rich, the Italians struggled and dwindled, influx of slaves.


The problem - Plutach, Life of T.G

Poor people who were ejected from their land no longer had the motivation for military service.


Traditional thought about the problem

Falling number of citizens
Fewer and fewer soldiers
Dwindling Italian soldiers
Too many slaves


Alternative approach to the problem

The population rises
Fewer people willing to fight
Not enough land
Perception of declining free
Certainly economic troubles


Why did Tiberius act? modern view

Manpower and land crisis


The solution

Tiberius proposes the Lex Agraria which would regulate the use of ager publicus. It would reinstate use of ager publicus, limited to 500 jugera. Up to 500 jugera per person made permanent and tax free. Land used in excess was confiscated and allotted to the poor.


Tiberius' allies

Ap. Claudius (consul in 143 and princeps senatus), P. Mucius Scaevola (consul 133), P. Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus (jurist and later pontifex maximus).