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Flashcards in Revision of embryogenesis Deck (22)
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What are then stages leading to formation of the blastocyst?

1.) Fertilization(fusion of egg and sperm)
2.)Cleavage (these cell divisions the large egg into a ball of many cells, there is no growth with these divisions)
3.)Blastocyst (composed of two cell populations, the trophoblast, which forms the placenta, and the inner cell mass, which forms the embryo proper)


Describe the fate of a cell in mammalian embryos

-The blastocyst is composed of trophoblast(outer layer) and the inner cell mass(ICM)
-The blastocoel (fluid filled cavity) fills much of the space of the trophoblast
-The trophoblast forms the chorion (the embryo's contribution to the PLACENTA)
-The ICM divides into the epiblast& hypoblast layers
-The hypoblast differentiates into Heuser's membrane.
-The epiblast forms the amniotic membrane and the three germ layers
-All of these tissues are extraembryonic and will be discarded at birth


What are the 3 germ layers?

-endoderm (innermost)


Which layer is the source of embryonic stem cells for generation of cells/tissues from embryos?

The inner cell mass.


What type of potency do mammalian blastomeres have?



What is gastrulation?

The process of the embryo going from two layers to form three germ layers


Which organs/cell types does each germ layer give rise to?

-Ectoderm: epidermis, nervous system
-Mesoderm: muscle, skeleton,dermis,kidney,blood
-Endoderm: Gut,liver,pancreas,lungs


What is the mesoderm subdivided into and what organs/tissues arise from each region?

-Paraxial mesoderm: all skeletal muscle cells
-Intermediate mesoderm: most of the urogenital system
-Lateral plate mesoderm (theres a space between them splits into...
1.)somatic mesoderm (outermost): connective tissue of body wall and limbs
2.) splanchnic mesoderm: mesothelial covering of the visceral organs


What forms the coelum?

The space between the inner splanchnic mesoderm and the outer somatic mesoderm


What do the first and last somites to be born form?

-The first somites will form the occipital bone at the base of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the neck
-The last to be born will form the vertebrae of the tail


What different parts does a somite form?



What is the neural crest?

-The 4th tissue/germ layer
-Forms at the lateral edges of the neural plate ,at the boundary with the epidermis
-crest cells delaminate from the neural tube and migrate away
-Neural crest cells are multipotent and give rise to the PNS,part of the heart and most of the face


State and describe the name and presentation of three defective somite development & vertebrae malformations.

1.) Spondylocostal dysostosis:
-rib fusions
-short vertebral column
2.) Klippel-Feil Anomaly:
-cervical and thoracic vertebrae
-including vertebrae fusions
3.) Alagille syndrome
-butterfly vertebrae


What may be the consequence of defects in neural crest cell development?

-Bilateral cleft lip
-Pierre-Robin sequence ( underdevelopment of the lower jaw)


What is Hirschsprung's disease?

-Caused by a failure of the vagal neural crest to migrate into posterior regions of the gut
-As a consequence, the bowels contents build up proximal to the affected region,causing it to expand,


What is somitogenesis?

-Generates small regular epithelial balls called somites in the paraxial mesoderm of the embryo


What does it mean when a cell is said to be 'committed'?

-It's fate cannot be changed by external changes.
-This happens as time progresses and the cell goes from totipotent-multipotent-committed.


What can growth factors regulate?

-Cell proliferation
-cell survival
-cell migration
-epithelial-mesenchymal transformations
-cell fate
-Growth factors used in the embryo are also used post-natally to repair and maintain organs e.g skin & gut
-Abmormal regulations of these growth factor pathways can result in post-natal disease e.g cancer metastasis (an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation) and calcification of the arteries.


What is a morphogen

-Some growth factors e.g SHH can act as morphogens
-specifies different cell fates at different doses e.g dorso-ventral patterning of neural tube by SHH


What is the role of transcription factors?

-alter gene expression and can regulate cell fate


During which period is the embryo most susceptible to teratogens and infectious agents?

- During the embryonic period
-The high risk during the embryonic period coincides with when most organs are developing


Which pathogens are embryos vulnerable to?

-Most vulnerable in 1st trimester
Toxoplasma parasite
Other viruses e.g parvovirus
Rubella virus
Herpes simplex virus
TORCH acronym
HIV & syphilis& Zika