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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (43)
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1

what host defences protect us from respiratory diseases

saliva, lymphoid tissue eg tonsils, alveolar macrophages

2

give an example of a disease causing sinusitis and how does it work

adenovirus, damages adhesions to cells, allows it to get through to mucosa and penetrate

3

give a virulence factor of streptococcus pyrogenes

exotoxins are haemolysis, break down blood cells, also protein m forming capsule

4

how does rheumatic fever result from strep pyrogenes

capsule is protective mechanism, form antibodies to this, but these are self reactive, attack sacrolemma of cardiac tissue, damages heart tissue

5

what is the difference between acute and chronic bronchitis

acute - happens over winter months due to virus
chronic - continuous cough for 3 months over 2 years

6

how does tb cause disease

has a thick capsule, macrophages engulf the bacteria, cannot lyse the capsule, so the bacteria continues to replicate inside the macrophages, giant cells form, if these liquify, the disease will spread in the body

7

what is pneumonia

inflammation of alveoli air sacs in lungs

8

how might pneumonia be acquired and what are pathogens are associated with disease

community - streptococcus pneumonia
hospital - staph aureus

9

what are 2 virulence factors of streptococcus pneumonia and how to they contribute to disease

pneumolysin - cleavage of proteins, allows adherence to alveoli cells, breaks down blood cells
capsulated - immune system can see bacteria but cannot get to it to attack it, chronic inflammatory disease

10

what are the treatments available for pneumonia

antibiotics - beta lactams, erythromycin
but resistance to these is increasing
so developing vaccine

11

how are drugs given by inhalation absorbed

powder which is topically by the airways, doesnt reach alveoli, is absorbed before then

12

how do bronchodilators aid respiratory disease

they act on beta 2 receptors as an agonist, opens up the airways, increase diameter, allows for better ventilation. or anticholinergic drugs block muscarinic nerve transmission to increase patency

13

how do anti-inflammatory's aid respiratory disease

break down mucous being secreted, this prevents a blockage in the airway

14

what triggers an asthma attack

mast cell degranulation

15

what is chromoglycate used for

mast cell stabiliser

16

what drugs impair respiratory function

opiods and benzodiazepines

17

what are the 2 types of inhalers

Metre dosed inhaler - puffer, powder in air is pressed out an inhaled, but can go at a high velocity so more absorbed in mouth than airways
breath activated device - blow into the inhaler, activates the powder, this is then inhaled, much slower velocity, more likely to be absorbed in airways

18

what can be given with a puffer to improve efficacy

spacer - slows down velocity and allows for a higher concentration of dose to be given

19

what are the 2 types of beta agonist inhalers

short acting - salbutamol, immediately opens airways, good in asthma attack, but only lasts up to 4 hours
long acting - salmeterol, takes 2 hours to start working but lasts 12-15 hours, may have affects on heart so must be used with steroid inhaler

20

what is an anticholinergic inhaler available

ipratropium - grey, improves bronchodilation

21

what steroid inhalers can be used

brown - beclomethasone, different shades of brown for different concentrations, indications of how severe asthma is
orange - fluticosone, pink - mometasone

22

what inhalers would give an indication that the asthma is not too bad

blue only or green and brown

23

what inhalers would indicate more severe asthma

orange or pink with green

24

why are compound preparations useful

patients tend to stop taking brown inhaler as dont feel it is doing anything, take green only, compromise heart. so these can be put together in one inhaler to ensure patient receives both drugs

25

what are symptoms of obstructive disease

cough - either dry or producing
wheezing or stridor, pain or dysponea - distress whilst breathing

26

what are signs of obstructive disease

respiratory rate - normally 12-15 breaths per minute, but will be much higher if breathing is insufficient
chest movement, vocal resonance - speaking heard whilst sounding chest

27

what investigations can be done into obstructive disease

peak expiratory flow rate - maximum flow
forced expiratory flow - in one second
chest x-ray

28

what is vq mismatch

blockage in ventilation so not all alveoli receiving oxygen, blockage in arteries so not all alveoli being perfused, the alveoli being perfused are not being ventilated - results in no oxygen delivery to blood

29

what is asthma

a reversible airflow obstruction

30

what causes asthma

hyper-reactivity to un-harmful substance, e.g. cold air or exercise. causes mast cell degranulation resulting in inflammatory mediators - causes inflammation, mucous production and constriction of airway smooth muscle.