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Flashcards in Respiratory - Physiology Deck (172)
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1

What are the effects of surfactant secretion in the lungs?

Decreased alveolar surface tension, increased compliance, and decreased work of inspiration

2

Name five important molecules produced by the lungs.

Surfactant, prostaglandins, histamine, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and kallikrein

3

In addition to inactivating bradykinin, what other reaction does angiotensin-converting enzyme catalyze?

The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II

4

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increase bradykinin, which leads to which two common adverse effects?

Cough and angioedema

5

A deficiency of surfactant leads to what neonatal condition?

Respiratory distress syndrome

6

Give the equation for calculating collapsing pressure.

Collapsing pressure = 2 × tension / radius

7

What is the effect of histamine on the airways in the lung?

Increases bronchoconstriction

8

In the lung, _____ (angiotensin-converting enzyme/kallikrein) inactivates bradykinin, _____ (angiotensin-converting enzyme/kallikrein) activates bradykinin.

Angiotensive converting enzyme; kallikrein

9

What is the term for the volume of air in the lungs after maximal expiration?

Residual volume

10

What is the term for the volume of air that can still be breathed out after normal expiration?

Expiratory reserve volume

11

What is the term for the volume of air that moves into the lungs with each quiet inspiration?

Tidal volume

12

How much is the typical tidal volume?

500 mL

13

What is the term for the volume of air in excess of tidal volume that moves into the lung on maximum inspiration?

Inspiratory reserve volume

14

What is the term for the maximum volume of air that can be inhaled and exhaled?

Vital capacity

15

Vital capacity equals the sum of what three lung volumes?

Tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume

16

The residual volume plus the expiratory reserve volume equals what?

The functional reserve capacity

17

Describe the functional reserve capacity.

The volume left in the lungs after normal expiration

18

The inspiratory reserve volume plus the tidal volume equals what?

Inspiratory capacity

19

The inspiratory reserve volume plus the tidal volume plus the expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume equals what?

Total lung capacity

20

What is the term for the lung volume that includes all capacity except the residual volume?

Vital capacity

21

Which lung volume cannot be measured on spirometry: inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, or residual volume?

Residual volume

22

What is the formula for calculating dead space volume given an arterial blood gas and a measurement of exhaled carbon dioxide?

Dead space volume = tidal volume × [(partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide - partial expiratory pressure of carbon dioxide) / partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide]

23

Physiological dead space includes the anatomical dead space of the _____ (conducting/respiratory) airways plus the functional dead space in _____ (alveoli/bronchioles).

Conducting; alveoli

24

Which section of the healthy lung contributes more to functional dead space: the apex or the base?

The apex

25

Describe the natural tendency of movement of the lung and chest wall.

The lungs tend to collapse inward and chest wall springs outward

26

At the point of functional residual capacity (i.e., at the end of a normal expiration), what is the value of the air pressure within the lungs?

At functional residual capacity, the pressure within the lungs is equal to atmospheric pressure

27

What balances the inward elastic pull of the lung at the point of functional residual capacity (i.e. at the end of a normal expiration)?

The outward pull of the chest wall

28

How many polypeptide subunits make up hemoglobin?

Four

29

Adult hemoglobin is formed from two _____ subunits and two _____ subunits.

α; β

30

What are the two conformational forms of hemoglobin?

Relaxed and taut