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Flashcards in Respiratory - Pharmacology Deck (52)
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1

Are H1-blockers reversible or irreversible inhibitors?

Reversible

2

List three clinical uses of first-generation H1-blockers.

To treat allergy and motion sickness and as a sleep aid

3

List three toxicities of first-generation H1-blockers.

Sedation, antimuscarinic, and anti-α-adrenergic symptoms

4

Loratadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, and desloratadine are examples of what class of drugs?

Second-generation H1-blockers

5

What is the clinical use of second-generation H1-blockers?

Allergies

6

What is the main difference between first- and second-generation H1-blockers with regard to their toxicities?

Second-generation H1-blockers are far less sedating because of decreased central nervous system entry

7

What are three first generation H1-blockers?

Diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, and chlorpheniramine

8

What are four second generation H1-blockers?

Loratadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, and desloratadine

9

What two types of β-agonists are used to treat asthma?

Nonspecific β-agonists and β2-agonists

10

What is the mechanism of action of isoproterenol?

It relaxes bronchial smooth muscle through agonism of β2-adrenergic receptors

11

What is the adverse effect of isoproterenol?

Tachycardia

12

Isoproterenol induces tachycardia through its agonism of what receptors?

β1-Adrenergic receptors

13

What is the mechanism of action of albuterol?

Albuterol relaxes bronchial smooth muscle through its agonism of β2-adrenergic receptors

14

Is albuterol used as a controller medication or for relief of symptoms during exacerbations?

It is used for relief in acute asthma exacerbations

15

Salmeterol is a _____ (short/intermediate/long) -acting agent.

Long

16

List two adverse effects of salmeterol.

Tremor and arrhythmia

17

What enzyme converts adenosine triphosphate to cAMP?

Adenylyl cyclase

18

What enzyme is inhibited by β-receptor agonists? What is the effect?

Adenylyl cyclase; it increases the amount of cAMP

19

Theophylline falls into which class of drugs?

Methylxanthines; caffeine is also a member of the class

20

Theophylline likely causes _____ by inhibiting phosphodiesterase and increasing what molecule?

Bronchodilation; cAMP

21

What is the effect on bronchial smooth muscle of increased cAMP concentration?

Decreased bronchial tone (ie, it causes bronchodilation)

22

The usage of what asthma drug is limited because of its narrow therapeutic index?

Theophylline

23

List two types of toxicity that theophylline can cause.

Cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity

24

In addition to inhibiting phosphodiesterase, theophylline also blocks endogenous _____ from inducing bronchoconstriction.

Adenosine

25

Ipratropium is an example of what class of drugs?

Muscarinic antagonists

26

Does ipratropium cause a competitive or a noncompetitive receptor blockade?

Competitive

27

By competitively blocking muscarinic receptors, ipratropium prevents endogenous _____ from inducing bronchoconstriction.

Acetylcholine

28

Cromolyn prevents what process from occurring?

The release of leukotrienes and histamine from mast cells

29

How is cromolyn used in the treatment of asthma?

Cromolyn is most effective when used as prophylaxis and cannot be used for acute symptoms

30

Name two corticosteroids commonly used to treat asthma.

Beclomethasone, prednisone