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Flashcards in Respiratory Anatomy Deck (59)
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1

What is the embryological origin of the respiratory tract?

A respiratory diverticulum from the upper end of the foregut

2

What structure first form in development of the lungs?

Two lung buds

3

What do lung buds become?

Primary bronchi

4

Primary bronchi divide into what?

Secondary bronchi

5

What are secondary bronchi also called?

Lobar bronchi

6

What do secondary bronchi divide into?

Tertiary bronchi

7

What are tertiary bronchi also called?

Segmental bronchi

8

Tertiary bronchi keep dividing to form what?

Terminal bronchioles

9

What do terminal bronchioles give rise to?

Respiratory bronchioles

10

Alveoli develop from respiratory bronchioles when?

Third trimester

11

What is a rare congenital malformation in which the upper esophagus is blind-ending and the lower esophagus is connected to the trachea by a fistula?

Esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula

12

Where does the trachea begin?

Cricoid cartilage (C6)

13

What type of cartilage is in the trachea?

Fibrocartilage

14

What type of cell lines the trachea?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

15

What holds the trachea open?

15-20 U-shaped rings

16

What are the dimensions of the trachea?

5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter

17

What connects the tracheal rings posteriorly?

Trachealis

18

Where does the trachea end?

The sternal angle (of Louis) at T4/T5

19

What marks the bifurcation of the trachea?

Carina (V shaped cartilage)

20

Where does the esophagus lie in relation to the trachea?

Posterior

21

What crosses the 2nd-4th tracheal rings?

The isthmus of the thyroid

22

Which bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical?

Right

23

Which bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi?

Left main bronchus

24

Which bronchus divides into three secondary bronchi?

Right main bronchus

25

How much surface area does a lung provide for gas exchange?

40 square meters

26

What are the different lung surfaces?

Cervical (apex), Diaphragmatic (base), Costovertebral (lateral), Mediastinal (medial)

27

Which lung is bigger, wider and shorter?

Right

28

How many bronchopulmonary segments are in each lung?

10 right
8-9 left

29

Where do the intersegmental veins of the lungs drain into?

The azygos veinous system or the pulmonary veins

30

What are the segmental arteries of the lungs derived from?

Bronchial branches of the aorta