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Flashcards in respiratory Deck (108)
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1

catabolism of glucose

co2, water, energy(ATP) in the presence of oxygen

2

what is breathing

the process of exchanging o2 from the atmosphere with co2 from the body

3

two main features that differentiate organisms respiratory systems

habitat
level of organisation

4

respiration in coelenterates,sponges,flatworms

cell surface, gaseous exchange with gases dissolving in water passing through cells as they do not have blood vessels to transport gases.

5

respiration in earthworms

moist cuticle. the cuticle is the outermost covering and used for the diffusion of gases. it is thin moist and vascular

6

respiration in insects like cockroach

network of tubes- the tracheal system to transport atmospheric air within the body. they have small openings called spiracles through which air enters and leaves the body.

7

respiration in lower aquatic arthropods

eg: cray fish,prawn ,molluscs like unio
they have special vascular structures like gills(plate like filamentous and highly vascular) which are bathed with water for exchange of gases

8

respiration in vertebrate fishes

gills

9

respiration in amphibians

gills(tadpole )
moist skin,lungs,buccal cavity(frogs and toads)

10

respiration in birds mammals and reptiles

lungs

11

why do aquatic animals have a faster rate of breathing than terrestrial animals

because the amount of dissolved oxygen is fairly lower in water than air and also that aquatic organisms like the fishes obtain oxygen from water present in the dissolved state.

12

turtles breathe air from

cloaca

13

what is fermentation

it is also called anaerobic respiration
eg:in yeast, glucose forms ethyl alcohol and co2. in bacteria,endoparasites, mature RBC and muscles, glucose is converted to lactic acid.

14

whats the respiratory passage

the flow of air from the outside to the internal surface of the lungs

15

the flow of air in the respiratory passage

external nostrils
nasal chamber
internal nares
nasopharynx
glottis(part of the larynx)
trachea
primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronchi
bronchioles

alveolar ducts
atria
alveolar sac
alveoli

16

external nostrils

holes in the nose above the upper lip

17

nasal chambers

pseudostratified ciliated columnar, non-ciliated brush border columnar, cuboidal and goblet cells lining
mucus from the goblet cells trap dust
moisture to make the air humid
brings the temperature of the incoming air up to body temp

18

internal nares

posterior openings of nasal cavities that lead to the nasopharynx

19

nasopharynx

only air passes through
opens into the trachea through the glottis(opening to the upper part of the larynx)

20

larynx

voice box
cartilage
the upper part of the trachea
opening called glottis

21

cartilages of larynx

1.thyroid cartilage: most prominent,c shaped, incomplete dorsally ,called Adam's apple(hyaline)

2.cricoid cartilage: lies below the thyroid cartilage, signet ring-shaped(hyaline)

3.arytenoid cartilages: two pyramid-shaped cartilages on the posterior wall of the larynx,attached to vocal cords(hyaline + elastic)

4. corniculate: two conical nodules of elastic-fibrocartilage which lie at the apices of arytenoid cartilages

5.cuniform: two elongated club-shaped of elastic fibro-cartilage which lie above and anterior to corniculate cartilages. these connect the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilage

6.epiglottis: leaf-like single cartilage that projects into the pharynx

22

what is the thyrohyoid membrane

broad flat membrane attached to the hyoid bone above and thyroid cartilage below

23

vocal cords present in the larynx

one pair of false vocal cord above the true vocal cords. they do not participate in sound production
one pair of inner true vocal cords which produce sound

24

vocal cords in men

well developed, thick and longer

25

trachea

windpipe
a straight tube extending up to the mid-thoracic cavity
lined by incomplete POSTERIORLY cartilaginous rings to prevent it from collapsing during inspiration
pseudostratified ciliated columnar mucus-secreting cells

26

where does the trachea divide into primary bronchi

5th thoracic vertebrae

27

what do bronchi divide into

divide to form terminal branching called bronchioles(lobular-terminal-respiratory). supported by incomplete cartilaginous rings(NOT IN BRONCHIOLES)

28

alveoli

thin-walled irregular walled balloon like structures well supplied with blood vessels. the exchange of gases takes place here.

29

number of alveoli in both lungs combined

300-500 million

30

surfactant active agent

lecithin secreted by type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, reduces the surface tension between the alveolar fluid and air. it prevents collapsing of the lungs' alveoli