Flashcards in Respiration and Digestion for anatomy Deck (167)
What is external respiration?
exchange of O2 and CO2 between inchaled air and the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries
What is internal respiration?
exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood in the systemic capillaries and all the cells and tissues of the body
What is apart of the upper respiratory system?
nostrils, nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea
What are the nares?
(nostrils) external openings of the respiratory tube that lead into the nasal passages
What do the hard and soft palates separate?
the nasal passages from the mouth
Where are the nasal passages?
between the nostrils and the pharynx
divide each nasal passage into 3 main passageways, thin scroll like bones covered with nasal epithelium, dorsal and ventral
What are nasal passages lined with?
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What do the cillia do in the nasal passages/nose?
project from the cell surfaces up into a layer of mucus
Mucus is secreted by?
mucous glands and goblet cells
What are the nasal passages functions?
warm, humidify, and filter inhaled air
How is the inhaled air warmed?
by blood flowing through blood vessels just beneath the nasal epithelium
How is inhaled air humidified?
by mucus and other fluids on the epithelial surface
How is air filtered?
as it passes through the winding passages produced by the turbinates, particles become trapped in the mucous layer so the cilia moves the mucus and trapped material towards the pharynx
What is the pharynx?
the common passageway for the respiratory and the digestive system
In the pharynx, the soft palate divides what?
the dorsal nasopharynx (respiratory passageway) and the ventral oropharynx (digestive passageway)
The _______ end of the pharynx opens ______ into the espohagus and ______ into the larynx.
caudal, dorsally, ventrally
When swallowing occurs in the pharynx.
breathing stops>opening of larynx is covered>material to be swallowed moves to rear of pharynx>esophagus opens>after swallowing larynx is reopened breathing resumes
Short, irregular tube connecting the pharynx with the trachea
What is the larynx composed of?
segments of cartilage that are connected to each other and the surrounding tissues by muscle
Which bone is the larynx supported by?
What are the cartilage components of the larynx?
epiglottis, arytenoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, and cricoid cartilage
What is the epiglottis?
leaf like structure that projects forward the ventral portion of the larynx
What is paired and is the attachment of the site of the vocal cords?
What form the boundaries of the glottis?
arytenoid cartilage and the vocal cords
What are vocal cords?
two connective tissue bands attached to the arytenoid cartilage that stretch across the lumen of larynx parallel to each other
opens the glottis, no sound
Lessening the tension:
lower pitched sounds
Tightening the tension:
higher pitched sounds