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Flashcards in Respiration and Digestion for anatomy Deck (167)
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1

What is external respiration?

exchange of O2 and CO2 between inchaled air and the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries

2

What is internal respiration?

exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood in the systemic capillaries and all the cells and tissues of the body

3

What is apart of the upper respiratory system?

nostrils, nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea

4

What are the nares?

(nostrils) external openings of the respiratory tube that lead into the nasal passages

5

What do the hard and soft palates separate?

the nasal passages from the mouth

6

Where are the nasal passages?

between the nostrils and the pharynx

7

Turbinates (3):

divide each nasal passage into 3 main passageways, thin scroll like bones covered with nasal epithelium, dorsal and ventral

8

What are nasal passages lined with?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

9

What do the cillia do in the nasal passages/nose?

project from the cell surfaces up into a layer of mucus

10

Mucus is secreted by?

mucous glands and goblet cells

11

What are the nasal passages functions?

warm, humidify, and filter inhaled air

12

How is the inhaled air warmed?

by blood flowing through blood vessels just beneath the nasal epithelium

13

How is inhaled air humidified?

by mucus and other fluids on the epithelial surface

14

How is air filtered?

as it passes through the winding passages produced by the turbinates, particles become trapped in the mucous layer so the cilia moves the mucus and trapped material towards the pharynx

15

What is the pharynx?

the common passageway for the respiratory and the digestive system

16

In the pharynx, the soft palate divides what?

the dorsal nasopharynx (respiratory passageway) and the ventral oropharynx (digestive passageway)

17

The _______ end of the pharynx opens ______ into the espohagus and ______ into the larynx.

caudal, dorsally, ventrally

18

When swallowing occurs in the pharynx.

breathing stops>opening of larynx is covered>material to be swallowed moves to rear of pharynx>esophagus opens>after swallowing larynx is reopened breathing resumes

19

Short, irregular tube connecting the pharynx with the trachea

larynx

20

What is the larynx composed of?

segments of cartilage that are connected to each other and the surrounding tissues by muscle

21

Which bone is the larynx supported by?

hyoid bone

22

What are the cartilage components of the larynx?

epiglottis, arytenoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, and cricoid cartilage

23

What is the epiglottis?

leaf like structure that projects forward the ventral portion of the larynx

24

What is paired and is the attachment of the site of the vocal cords?

arytenoid cartilage

25

What form the boundaries of the glottis?

arytenoid cartilage and the vocal cords

26

What are vocal cords?

two connective tissue bands attached to the arytenoid cartilage that stretch across the lumen of larynx parallel to each other

27

Complete relaxation:

opens the glottis, no sound

28

Lessening the tension:

lower pitched sounds

29

Tightening the tension:

higher pitched sounds

30

Larynx functions:

prevention of foreign material form being inhaled, control air flow to and from the lungs