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Flashcards in Resource Management UK Deck (29)
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The U.K. - food

Import 40% of food
Carbon footprint is therefore increasing
Concerns about our dependency on foreign food

Agribusiness- lots of chemicals, to MAXIMISE crop yields


Water - uk

50% of us water supply is used domestically
North and west -surplus
South and east - deflect

Water STRESS - 1/2 of uk


U.K. - energy

Energy consumption has DECREASED due to decline of heav y industry
Low energy appliances
60% drop in energy use by industry
2020- aim to use 15% of energy from RENEWABLE sources
By 2020 - likely to be importing 75% of energy
Using nuclear and wind farms


Factors effecting food security

Climate , water stress
, pests and diseases

Poverty - technology - conflict


Impacts of food insecurity

- eg Somalia 2010-2012 - 285,000

- 2012-2014 , 805 ill ion suffered from under nutrition

Social unrest
Soil erosion - if struggling,plant as much as possible
Rising prices - don't have to lower to compete for customers


Increasing food supply?

Aeroponics and hydroponics
The new green revolution (original - machines, chemicals- MORE is sustainability etc)
Appropriate technology


The Indus basin irrigation system

Indus River
India and Pakistan
3 large days and 100 + smaller dams
Torbella- largest reservoir holds 11 billion m3
Over 1.6 millio km of streams provide irrigation for agriculture land in pak


Pros of Indus Bain irrigation

Over 14 millio ha of land now irrigated
Increase crop yields - eg fruit by 150%
Fish farming in storage reservoirs


Cons - Ibus irrigation

Some water logging
Lots of evaporation in summer
High cost

Some farmers take unfair share


Sustainable food production

Organic farming
Urban farming
Fish from sustainable sources (and meat)
Seasonal food consumption
Reduce food waste and loss - 32% `OF FOOd produced is wasted or lost


Increasing sustainable food supplies in MAKUENI , Kenya

Population 885,000
500 mm rainfall pa
Fertile volcanic soils

2014 'just a drop' charity
2 villages adn primary school

- improved access to clean and safe water
- collection on rood of school
-growing trees to reduce erosion
- sand dams to trap water and clean it
-training programs for the farmers


Over abstraction ( water)

Pumping water out of ground faster than its replace by rainfall


Water pollution - the river Ganges , India

2520 km long
Through northern India and Bangladesh
Over 1 bullion litres of raw sewage enter the river each day form the cities , towns
Major polluting industry is leather industry
Run off pesticides and fertilisers
260 million litres of untreated wastewater from factories is discharged into the river daily


Water conflict??

In future, could be fights of water supply
Because of pollution , reservoir constriction


How can water supply be increased

Dams `nd resevoirs
Increasing storage and diverting supplies - eg in deep aquifers so no evaporation
Water transfers - surplus to. Defiect


What is desalination

Removing salt from sea water

-environmental impacts when salt waste is dumpe into sea
- vast amount of energy - carbon emissions
High cost of transporting desalinated water into inland areas


The Lesotho high land water project

Huge water transfer scheme to help solve water shortage in south Arica
40% of the water for segu river in Lesotho will be transferred to river Vaal in south Africa

- man reservoirs and dams, Philli dam (2.2billuom m3 of water)
- tunnels


Advantages for LESOTHO

Provides 75% of its GPD
I come from scheme - development
Supplies country with Hep
SANITATION COVERAGE increase from 15-20%


Disadvantages for Lesotho

Building of the firstly 2 dams - 30,000 had to move
Destruction of wetland ecosystems
Corruption prevented money and investment reaching those affected by construction
Construction of pohihali dam will displace 17 villages and reduce agricultural land for 71 villages


Advantages for South Africa

[rpvodes safe water for 10% who don't have safe water supply
Fresh water reduces acidity of Vaal river
Influx of water = restoring acne


Disadvantages for South Africa

Costs - $4 billion
40% of water lost through leakages
Increased water tariffs to pay for scheme are too high for poor


Sustainable water supply

Water conservation
Groundwater management
Recycling water
Grey water


What's grey water

Taken form baths, showers etc
Used within 24 hours - fertiliser for plants



Driest and poorest part of India
North west
Sumer temps - 53
Less than 250mm rainfall a- 96% between June and September

Over sue. Of water for irrigation - water logging and salinisation
Over abstraction


The wakel river basin project

South of Rajasthan

- to increase water supply and storage
-raise AWARNESS in local communities of the need for effective water management


Increasing water supply- the wakel river basin project

Taankas- underground storage systems about 3m in diameter and 3-4m deep

Johed- small Earth dams to capture rainwater. Helped to raise water tabes but up to 6m, 5 rivers that used to dry up following the monsoon now flows throughout year

Pats -irrigation channels that transfer water to the fields


How does the pat system work ? The wakel river basin project

In the pat system - a small dam called a bund diverts water from the stream towards the fields
Bunds are made of stones, adn lined with leaves to make them water proof

Villagers take turns to irrigate their files using this


Impacts of water insecurity

Pollution and disease
Food production
Industrial output


Factors affecting water availability

Physical - climate, geology - I of impermeable, runs off to lakes - easy to use

Economic and social -population growth, more frequent. Shoers, high demand for business ( all over abstraction)

Pollution of water sources - reduces amount of clean water available
Limited infrastructure - sewers can't be built quick enough to supply the population
Poverty - have to buy not safe to drink water as not have enough money