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Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (63)
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1

Experimental method

A process of manipulating an IV to see the effect on the DV

2

Aim

A statement of what the researchers intend to find out in a research

3

Hypothesis

A precise testable statement about the assumed relationship between variables

4

Directional hypothesis

States the direction of the difference or relationship
Used when previous research suggests a particular outcome

Condition 1 will get more/less DV than those in condition 2

5

Non directional hypothesis

Does not state the direction
When there is no previous research or if it had contradictory findings

There will be a difference in the DV of those in condition 1 and condition 2

6

Independent variable

Some aspect of the experimental situation that is manipulated by the researcher so the DV can be measured

What I change

7

Dependent variable

The variable that is measured by the research

8

Operationalisation

Clearly defining variable to ensure that they are in a form that can be easily tested

9

Extraneous variables

Variable besides the IV which may have an effect on the DV
Nuisance variable that do not vary systematically with the IV

E.g. individual differences

10

Confounding variables

Variable besides the IV which may have affected the DV
Do vary systematically with the IV
Only affects one group

E.g. practise effects, fatigue effects

11

Demand characteristics

Cue from researcher that ppts may interpret as revealing the purpose of the investigation
May lead to ppt changing their behaviour

12

Investigator effects

Any effect of the investigators behaviour (conscious or unconscious) on the research outcome
Everything from design to study to interaction of ppts during research process

13

Controlling extraneous variables

Randomisation
Standardisation

14

Randomisation

The use of chance in order to control for the effects of bias when designing materials and deciding order of conditions

15

Standardisation

Making everything the same
Using exactly the same formalised procedures and instructions for all ppts in a research study

16

Independent groups

Ppts divided into 2 groups
One group takes part in condition 1 and one group takes part in condition 2

17

Strengths of independent groups

No order effects
Higher in internal validity

18

Limitations of independent groups

Cannot control effects of ppt. variables or diff. variables
Needs more ppts. to obtain same amount of data

19

Repeated measures

One group of ppts
The ppts take part in both conditions of the experiment

20

Strengths of repeated measures

Does not need as many ppts
Quicker

21

Limitations of repeated measures

Order effects
Boredom effect
May act to demand characteristics

22

Matched pairs

The people for the experiment are tested before taking part and are matched for qualities into pairs

One member of the pair takes part in one conditions, the other in the other condition

23

Strengths of matched pairs

No boredom effect
No order effect
Most accurate

24

Limitations of matched pairs

Time consuming
Need a very large sample as it’s difficult to match ppts on key variables
Not possible to control all variables as you can only match on variables known to be relevant

25

Dealing with limitations of independent groups

Individual differences - randomisation
Distributes ppts variables evenly

26

How to deal with limitation of repeated measures

Counterbalancing - either AB or BA or ABBA

27

How to deal with limitation of matched pairs

Restrict no. of variables to match on to make it easier
Conduct a pilot study to consider key variables that might be important when matching

28

Mutually exclusive experiment types

Lab and Field
Natural and Quasi

29

Lab experiment

Researcher controls as many variables as possible
Usually done in a lab using standardised procedures

30

Strengths of Lab experiment

High replicability
High external validity
High internal validity