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Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (295)
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What is psychology?

Psychology is the study of the brain and behaviour.


What is procedural memory?

The memory for the performance of particular types of actions and is typically accessed below the level of conscious awareness.


What should your aims always start with?

"To investigate..."


What are the two types of alternative hypothesis?

Directional and non-directional


What is a directional hypothesis (one-tailed)?

A hypothesis that states the way they predict the results will go.


What is a non-directional hypothesis (two-tailed)?

A hypothesis that states there will be a difference, but not what the difference will be.


When is the null hypothesis accepted?

This hypothesis is accepted if the results of the test are not significant, or there is no difference.


What is the null hypothesis?

The hypothesis which states there will be no difference, or that any difference is down to chance.


What is the independent variable?

The thing that is manipulated/changed


What is the dependent variable?

The thing that is measured


What are extraneous variables?

Anything that impacts the dependent variable which is not the independent variable.


What is operationalization?

Explaining how the variables can be measured or controlled.


What is the target population?

These are the people that the researcher is interested in.


Why do we need to take a sample?

There are usually too many people in the target population to research them all.


What is a sample?

The people the researcher actually selects/uses in their study.


What is the sampling technique?

The way the participants are selected.


What is a random sample?

Each participant has an equal change of selection. E.g. random name generator


What is a opportunity sample?

Asking people who are available at that time to take part. E.g. a researcher may ask parents picking their children up from school.


what is a volunteer sample?

The researcher advertises the study and people who see the advert may get in contact and volunteer


What is a systematic sample?

When you select every nth name from a list.


What is a stratified sample?

Selecting people from every portion of your population in the same proportions.


What is the experimental method?

An experiment is an investigation in which the independent variable is manipulated in order to cause a change in the dependent variable.


What is a laboratory experiment?

This type of experiment is conducted in a well controlled environment- not necessarily a lab- and therefore accurate measurements are possible.


What are the strengths of a laboratory experiment?

- It is easier to replicate a laboratory experiment because a standardised procedure is used.
- They allow for precise control of extraneous and independent variable. This makes it possible to establish a cause and effect relationship.


What are the limitations of a laboratory experiment?

-The artificiality of the setting may produce unnatural behaviour that does not reflect real life- low ecological validity.
-Therefore hard to generalise to a real life setting
-Demand characteristics/experiment effects may bias the results.


What is a field experiment?

These experiments are done in the everyday environment of the participants. The experimenter still manipulates the independent variable, but in a real life setting.


What are the strengths of a field experiment?

- Natural environment leads to higher ecological validity
-less likelihood of demand characteristics affecting the results, as participants may not know they are being studied.


What are the limitations of a field experiment?

- Less control over extraneous variables
- Difficult to replicate the study


What are natural experiments?

Experiments conducted in the everyday environment of the participants but the independent variable is not manipulated but occurs naturally in real life.


What are the strengths of natural experiments?

- high ecological validity
-less likelihood of demand characteristics as they might not know they are being studied
-Can be used in situations where it would be ethically unacceptable to manipulate the independent variable