Reproductive Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproductive Endocrinology Deck (38)
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1

The endocrine system uses _____ and _____

Hormones; chemical messengers

2

Hormones secreted influence function of target cells at _______

Distant sites

3

A hormone can be either _______ or _______

Endocrine; neuroendocrine

4

_______, ________, and ______ are controlled by feedback mechanisms

Secretion, transport, and clearance

5

Transport depends on

- water solubility
- whether a hormone is protein bound

6

Clearance via

- metabolic destruction
- binding with tissues
- hepatic excretion
- renal excretion

7

What are the 3 anatomical structures that produce reproductive hormones?

- hypothalamus
- pituitary gland
- gonads (testicles, ovaries)

8

What is considered to be the "master organ"?

Hypothalamus
- has a combo neuro and endocrine center

9

The hypothalamus regulates

- endocrine system
- body temp
- appetite
- sexual behavior
- fear/rage centers

10

The hypothalamus controls the action of the ______

Pituitary

11

Median eminence

Connects hypothalamus with the pituitary

12

The portal vessel communicates with the ______

Anterior pituitary

13

The hypothalamus secretes _____

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH)
- secreted by axons
- enters into portal system and carried to pituitary

14

Anterior pituitary

- located below hypothalamus
- receives GnRH via portal system

15

AP releases ____ and ______

- lutenizing hormone (LH)
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

16

_____ drives ovulation

LH
- is possible to stimulate an endogenous LH surge via GnRH
- could use HCG with LH-like properties

17

______ drives follicular waves in cattle

FSH
- is exploited to super-ovulate cattle

18

Release of GnRH

- surge center: releases large volume of GnRH
- tonic center: slow, consistent release of GnRH, and can "gush" GnRH right before ovulation

19

Release of oxytocin

Hypothalamus makes oxytocin that is released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary

20

Oxytocin

Formed in paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus
- travels down nerve endings to posterior pituitary
- released by exocytosis

21

Oxytocin is a _______ hormone

Neuroendocrine

22

Oxytocin assists with

- milk let down
- uterine contractions

23

Gonads

Receive hormonal stimulation from the gonadotropins released from the anterior pituitary
- FSH and LH

24

Testicles secrete ____ and _____

Testosterone; estrogen

25

LH acts on ______ to secrete ______ (males)

Leydig cells; testosterone

26

FSH stimulates _____ to produce _____ from testosterone

Sertoli cells; estrogen

27

Testosterone

Responsible for male characteristics
- penis/scrotum formation
- testicular descent
- muscle formation

28

SRY gene

Causes genital ridge to produce testosterone and become testes
= male phenotypic sex results

29

Ovaries secrete ____ and _____

Estrogen; progesterone

30

FSH acts on the _____ to produce _____ (female)

Ovary (follicle); estrogen
- stimulates follicular development