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Flashcards in Reading points - midterm 2 Deck (261)
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1

how father stopped 7 month old boy grabbing glasses

but them behind his back
as object removed from sight, according to piaget never existed so boy stopped being annoying trying to play with them

2

what do developmental theories provide

a framework for understanding important phenomena
emphasis on observations and experiences in a larger context and deepen our understanding of their meaning

3

developmental theories raise questions about

human nature

4

how does baillargeon argue around children under 8 months don't reach for an object hidden by a cloth

do realise the hidden object continues to exist but lack the memory or problem-solving skills necessay for using that understanding to retreive hidden objects

5

developmental theories lead to a better understanding about

children
new research stimulated
eg piaget theory led to research of retrieving toys now from under an opaque cover (which 7 month olds did) this supported piaget's original interpretation showing neither lack of motivation nor lack of ability to reach for the toy explained the infants usual failure to retreive it

6

diamond's experiemnt with opaque cover and waiting times

varied amount of time toy was hidden when the infant was allowed to reach for it (again opque covering used)
6 month olds immediate, 7 2 second wait, 8 4 second wait
memory for the location of hidden objects as well as the understanding that they continue to exist is crucial to success on the task

7

5 theories of cognitive development in text book

piaget - active child, continuity/ discontinuity
information-processing - how change occurs
core-knowledge - continuity/ discontinuity
sociocultural - influential of sociocultural context, how change occurs
dynamic systems - active child, how change occurs
all adress nature vs nurture

8

Piaget's theory

swiss psych
cognitive development involves a sequence of four stages (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operatioal and formal operational stages) that are constructed through the processes of assimilation, accomodation and equilibration

9

why do we still use / think about piaget today

observations vivd for each age
remind care givers of own experience with children
breadth of theory
intuitively plausible depiction of the interaction of nature and nurture in cognitive development as well as continuities / discontinuities that characterise intelectual growth

10

piaget fundamental assumption

children are metnally active from the moment of birth
mental and physical activity contribute greatly to their development

11

piaget approach =

constructivist
child constructing knowledge for themselves in response to their experiences

12

three most important of children's ocnstructive processes

generating hypotheses
performing experiments
drawing conclusions from their observations
= child scientists

13

piaget son - laurent book observation

dropping toys in different places
when lands somewhere new eg pillow will do it several times to work out the the difference

14

what is the second basic piagetian assumption

children learn many important lessons on their own, rather than depending on instructions from others

15

pebble example from piaget in book

line up pebbles and count ten in one direction
then count in the other direction checking there are still ten

16

what is the third basic piagetian assumption

children are intrinsically motivted to learn and do not need rewards from other people to do so
when they aquire a new capability - they apply it as often as possible
also reflect on lessons of their experience becuase they want to understand themselves and everything around them

17

piaget view on nature vs nurture

they interact to produce cognitive development
nurture includes the experiences children encounter
nature = ability to learn from experience, tendency to integrate particular observations into coherent knowledge
vital part of children's nature is how they respond to nurture

18

three processes which are the main sources of continutiy according to piaget

assimilation
accomodation
equilibration

19

assimilation
book example

the process by which people translate incoming information into a form that fits concepts they already understand
eg 2 yo child - saw man with bald patch ontop of his head then long side hair - shouts clown clown as assimilated into his own knowledge

20

accomodation
book example

the process by which people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experience
eg boy father explained bald man not a clown as whilst hair correct, no silly costume etc = boy's clown conceot changes

21

equilibration
book example

the process by which children (or other people) balance assimilation and accomodation to create stable understanding
4-7 yo believe animals are the only living things as they move in ways to help them survive. then learn flowers and plants move too = causes disequilibrium (now confused about what it means to be alive) thiking then becomes accomodating that animals are plants are alive as both move to survive
= more stable equilibrium because subsequent info about animals and plants will not disrupt it
this is how children learn about the world surorunding them

22

according to piaget when satisfied with their knowledge =
and explain the opposite

equilibrium
disequilibrium = when they recognise shortcomings in their understanding of the phenomena but cannot generate a superior alternative. simply = confused. finally will develop a more sophisticated understanding that eliminates the shortcomings of the old one
= more advanced equilibrium within which a braoder range of observations can be understood

23

4 central properties of piaget's stage theory

qualitative change
broad applicability
brief transitions
invariant sequence

24

piaget's view on qualitative children

children of different ages think in qualitatively different ways
early stages of cognitive development conceive of morality in terms of the consequences of the behaviour and not the persons intent (which they work out later)
eg person who knocks over cookie jar smashing all the cookies acciendetally was naughtier than the person who stole one cookie (by 8 reverse)

25

what does piaget mean by broad applicability

the type of thinking characteristic of each stage influences children's thikings acorss diverse topics and contexts

26

what does piaget mean by brief transitions

before entering a new stae, children pass through a brief transitional period in which they fluctuate between the type of thinking characterised by the new and the old

27

what does piaget mean by invariant sequence

everyone progresses throught the stages in the same order without skipping any of them

28

during the sensorimotor stage intelligence is bound to

the immediate perceptions and actions

29

which stage has the clearest example of the active child

sensorimotor intelligence

30

between birth and age three the brain

weight triples