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Midwifery y1 Anatomy and Physiology > RANDOM > Flashcards

Flashcards in RANDOM Deck (35)
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1

What is the blood volume in a new born?

80-100 ml/kg

2

What is the RR in a new born?

Initially 50 breaths/min falling to 40 b/m on average

3

What are the types of cells in the lung alveoli and what do they do?

Alveolar surface is mostly formed by two types of epithelial cells
Type-I: most of the alveolar surface (∼95%) is covered by type I cells, these are flattened cells, role in producing lung liquid

Type II: produces surfactant; a lipoprotein, forms a barrier between cells and air and would decrease the surface tension

Macrophages: which remove particles and microorganisms coming with the air

4

What does APGAR stand for?

Appearance, Pulse, Grimace , Activity and Respiration

5

Which 5 hormones stimulates growth of the gravid uterus?

Relaxin, progesterone, oestrogen, hCG, Oxitocin.

6

How much does the weight of the uterus increase from pre pregnancy to term?

During normal pregnancy the weight of the uterus increase 10 to 20 fold from about 44g in the primigravida to 1100 grams at term. It increases with successive pregnancies.

7

When should you perform an abdominal examination?

At each antenatal assessment from the 24 weeks of pregnancy, adapted according to gestation (NICE 2008 reviewed 2016)
Prior to auscultation of the fetal heart
Before a vaginal examination
Throughout labour

8

name 3 functions of the vagina

Immune function
Sexual function
Birth canal

9

what is the pH of the vagina? What could change this?

3.5-4.5. Menstruation, Intercourse (Siemen is alkali). Could lead to thrush.

10

What is the process of capacitation?

Maturing of sperms in the cervical crypts.

11

when does the embryo become a fetus?

w 9

12

On what day does gastrulation start?

day 15

13

The epiblast sits atop the ...?

Hypoblast

14

What is the "spine" of the embryo called?

Notochord

15

What is a Zygote?

A fertilised Ovum

16

Where is the vasomotor centre located?

In the Medulla Oblongata.

17

What is epithelium?

Epithelium (epi- + thele + -ium) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue. The other three types are connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body.

18

What's the pH of blood?

around 7.4.

19

What are normal HB values in pregnancy?

10.8- 14.6 g/dl

20

What is the normal increase of blood volume in pregnancy?

30-50%

21

Which harmful materials enter the lymph vessels?

Bacteria
Viruses
Cancer cells
Cell debris

22

Lymphocytes are a type of..

Leucocyte (WBC)

23

Which are the four Lymphatic organs?

Spleen (blood filter, removes old red blood cells)
Thymus (T Lymphocytes)
Tonsils
Peyer’s patches (In the small intestine)

24

What type of cell is a Macrophage?

Phagocytic cell

25

Name three properties of the active immune system

Antigen specific—recognizes and acts against particular foreign substances
Systemic—not restricted to the initial infection site
Memory—recognizes and mounts a stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens

26

What are Antigens?

Any substance capable of exciting the immune system and provoking an immune response
Examples of common antigens
Foreign proteins (strongest)
Large carbohydrates
Some lipids
Microorganisms

27

What are Haptens?

Incomplete antigens that cause an immune response, makes them attack the bodys own cells- causing ALLERGIES

28

What deceases are screened for through blood tests during booking appointment?

Hep B, Syphilis, HIV, Thalassemia, Sickle cell decease (if there is family history)

29

What 4 things does a newborn examination look for?

eyes (congenital cataract), heart (cardiac conditions), hips (hip dysplasia), undescended testes.

30

What type of screening scans are offered in pregnancy?

Dating scan: this is the first trimester scan. The main goal of this scan is to determine if it is a single or multiple pregnancy and date the pregnancy by measuring the size of the fetus from top to bottom, which is known as crown rump length (CRL). However, at this stage it is possible to start suspecting fetal anomalies by measuring the nuchal translucency (NT): the amount of fluid under the skin behind the neck of the fetus. It is offered between 11 and 14 weeks.
Anomaly scan: This is the second trimester scan, it is offered between 18 and 21 weeks. The main goal of this scan is to screen for the 11 of conditions discussed above (it is not specifically designed for Down's syndrome)