Flashcards in Radiology Deck (188)
When a lateral projection of the abdomen or thorax is taken, the marker should indicate?
the side that is down on the table or cassette
When a lateral projection of an extremity is taken, the marker should be placed?
cranially to (in front of) the leg
T/F A radiograph is a two-dimensional picture of a three-dimensional structure.
T/F Two views of each anatomic area are taken at right angles to each other.
The importance of two views is exemplified when radiographing a ____.
How should a lateral thorax radiograph be placed on the view box for viewing?
all laterally positioned anatomy should face the viewer's left, with the spine at the top
What should the film look like for OFA(Orthopedic Foundation for Animals)?
extended view of the pelvis: wing of the ilium to stifle joint of long bone and the joint below it too (all three bones must be seen)
What is the purpose of the OFA?
lowering genetic diseases for breeders
How old must a patient be for OFA? PennHip?
24 months old, no age requirement
Which is better OFA or PennHip why?
PennHip because it gives a better evaluation by checking joint laxity with 3 different views
What is hip dysplasia?
abnormal formation of the hip socket
What does it mean for film to be "blue-sensitive?"
highly responsive to ultraviolet, violet, and blue spectrum of light
What is nonscreen film sensitive to?
ionizing radiation and pressure
List and describe the 6 developer components?
1) developing agents(chemical compounds that convert grains of silver into black metallic silver)
2) accelerators(chemicals that increase the activity of the developer)
3) preservatives(prevent rapid oxidation/prevent staining of emulsion layer)
4) restrainers(limit the action of the developing agent to the exposed silver crystals)
5) hardeners(harden film and prevent excessive swelling of the emulsion)
6) the solvent(has water to dissolve the chemicals)
What does the rinse bath do?
stops the developing process, rinses the developer from the film, prevents carryover contamination to the fixer
What are the purposes of the fix bath?
to clear the unexposed silver halide crystals from the film and it hardens the gelatin coating so it can be dried without damaging the film
What metal is retrieved from the developing soultions?
black metallic silver
What are the three solutions? What are they affected by?
developer, water, fixer based on temperature
A warmer temperature makes the developer?
How is a film developed?
develop->water->fixer(x2)->water(rinse bath 20 mins)->must dry it
T/F The duration of the fixation process is usually twice the clearing time and until after the film has lost its "milky" appearance.
Putting the film back into the fix tank after evaluation for a total of ___ is important to allow maximum hardening of the film.
How do you know if you've taken a good view of the pelvis? Field of view?
if the obterator foreman are the same size, tubercoles same size, femurs are straight and parallel, patellas are on top, FOV-pelvis, femurs, stifle joints
What are the two basic questions you ask yourself?
1) is the film too light or too dark
2) is there proper penetration
If you skip the rinse bath and go to the next chemical what color does the film turn?
For a dorsalventral view where should the heart be?
closet to the plate
Where should the area you're most interested in be?
as close to the image receptor as possibel
If bone is too dark than what needs to be decreased?
If bone is too white increase?