What are the 2 main functions of the cardiovascular system?
bloodflow to the tissues, pressure of the arteries
Which circulatory system is a high pressure system?
systemic arterial circulation
Increased hydrostatic pressure is required too perfuse tissues with a high resistance to blood flow. List two tissues resistance to blood flow
At what point inthe cardiac cycle are the atria filling and the ventricles relaxed?
T/F The vena cava carry oxygenated blood.
The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction is called the
systolic blood pressure
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure is
During systole/diastole blood in the right/left ventricle is pumped into the lungs through the semilunar valve called the aortic/pulmonic valve
systole, right, pulmonic
What part of the brain is responsible for concious thought and interpretation of sesnory information?
Nerve impulses are transmitted from neurons to taget tissues via
Which neurotransmitter is always inhibitory?
T/F afferent nerve fibers travel away form the CNS
Describe how a reflex arc works.
Stimulation of sensory receptor>motor neuron in the CNS (spinal cord or brainstem) sends out an impulse which ends at the target organ>response
Mechanical breakdown of food resulting in the increase of surface area for exposure to digestive enzymes is
Release of ____ from the intestine slows down gastric empyting by inhibiting gastric motility
secretion and cholecystokinin
The process of slowing down gastic empyting is called
Transport of water, ions and nutrients form the gut lumen across the epithelium and into the blood is
Secretion of _____ inhibits muscle activity of the gastric fundus allowing it to relax and fill during ingestion of food
The process of contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in the GI tract is known as
T/F HCl, pepsin, and gastric are all secreted into the lumen of the stomach
Durring deglutition the _____ prevents food from entering the trachea
Parietal cell is produces
Chief cells produce
G cells produce
Mucuous cells produce
T/F Motility and secretion in the GI tract are decreased by stimulation by the parasympathetic nervous system
Gastrin, acetylcholine, and histamine stimulat the secretion of hydrogen and chloride in the stomach by binding to specific receptors on gastric___
T/F postaglandins stimulate bicarbonate production and cause enhanced blood flow to the stomach for repair of damage to the gastric epithelial lining
List two species that cannot vomit. Why?
horse, rabbit because of their anatomy
List the parts of the ruminant stomach.
abomasum, rumen, reticulum, omasum