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Flashcards in Puberty Deck (49)
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1

Which hormones control puberty?

-GnRH
-LH
-FSH
-Neuroendocrine hormones

2

Which female steroid hormones are involved in puberty

-Oestradiol
-Progesterone
-Adrenal androgen precursors

3

Which male steroid hormones are involved in puberty?

-Testosterone
-Dihydrotestosterone( DHT)
-Adrenal androgens
-Oestradiol

4

What does testosterone get aromatised to?

Oestrogen---> This gives us our growth spurt( growth plates fuse together)

5

Define gonadarche

Activation of the gonads by the pituitary hormones FSH-LH

6

Define adrenarche

Increase in production of androgens by the adrenal cortex

7

Define Thelarche

Appearance of breast tissue----> oestradiol(ovaries)

8

Define Menarche

First menstrual bleed-oestradiol on endometrial lining-non ovulatory

9

Define spermarche

First sperm production- nocturnal sperm emissions FSH,LH---> testosterone

10

Define pubarche

-Appearance of pubic hair ---> androgens from adrenal gland
-First appearance of axillary hair, apocrine body odour& acne

11

What is estradiol responsible for?

-Breast development
-Growth acceleration
-Skeletal maturation

12

What is estradiol together with progesterone responsible for?

-Menstruation

13

Outline the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis

-Hypothalamus releases GnRH which stimulates the gonadotroph cell
-The gonadotroph cell releases FSH&LH which stimulate folliculogenesis in the ovary

14

Which hormones inhibit the activity of the gonadotroph in females?

-Inhibin
-Progesterone
-Estrogens ( primarily estradiol)

15

Outline the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis

-Hypothalamus releases GnRH which stimulates the gonadotroph cell
-The gonadotroph cell releases FSH&LH which stimulate spermatogenesis in the testis

16

Which cells produce testosterone?

The Leydig cells of the testis

17

Which hormones inhibit the activity of the gonadotroph in males?

-Inhibin B

18

Which hormones inhibit the activity of the hypothalamus in females?

-Progesterone
-Estogens (primarily estradiol)

19

Which hormones inhibit the activity of the hypothalamus in males?

-testosterone

20

Describe the pattern of testosterone conc on a graph

-Spikes
-As you go on in puberty, the spikes become higher& bigger and they become diurnal
-Girls also get oestrogen which also spikes but not to the same extent

21

Outline the tanner stages for genitalia

1.) Pre-pubertal
2.) Beginning of onset of puberty; testes enlarges from 3ml-->4ml
3.) darker colour-redness
4.) even darker and larger,scrotal sac comes down more
5.) darkest and largest

22

Outline the tanner stages for pubic hair in boys

-5 stages
-5 has the most pubic hair
-Pubic hair starts at the base of the penis

23

Outline the mammary/breast tanner stages

-5 stages
-gradual growth of breast tissue
-areolar+ nipple increase in size
-5th stage: theres is a smooth contour of the breast; the growth is complete

24

What is one of the first testicular difference in puberty for boys

Testicular stages increases from 3ml to 4ml

25

Outline the tanner stages for pubic hair in females

-6 stages
-gradual increase in amount of pubic hair
-Starts along the labial line
-If it starts elsewhere it isnt true puberty

26

What pubertal tanner stages exist for boys?

-(A) Axillary hair( A1-A3)
-(P) Pubic hair (P1-P5)
-(G) Genitalia (G1-G3)

27

Which pubertal tanner stages exist for girls?

-(A) Axillary hair (A1-A3)
-(P) Pubic hair (P1-P6)
-(B) Breast development (B1-B5)
-(M) Monarche; menstrual, the onset of the menses (M1-M2)

28

What determines pubertal timing ?

-Genetics eg mum& daughter have their period around the same time
-Environment eg insectides, pesticides, hormone disrupters, phytooestrogens found in soya milk
-Nutritional status eg anorexia delays it
-Health status eg immunocomprimisation

29

What other changes apart from those outlined by the tanner stages, are associated with puberty?

1.) Anaemia
-more likely in girls
2.) Gynecomastia
3.) Acne
-caused by androgenic stimulation
-Higher serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate( DHEAS)

30

What is precocious puberty?

-2 or 2.5 SD earlier than the population norms
-May range from variants of normal development to pathologic conditions; may be genetics
-BOYS: before 9yrs
-GIRLS: before 8yrs