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experimental design

technical term for a specific type of research

ex) to show that consuing a healthy diet helps cause or lead to heart health and longevity, an exp design is needed 



steps to a good experimental design 

1) select a population 

2) operationalize variables

3) divide into groups

4) random sampling 

5) random assignment 

6) measuremnt 

7) test the hypothesis 


The phenomenon whereby individuals tend to favor internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior is known as:

the fundamental attribution error

The fundamental attribution error is the phenomenon whereby individuals tend to favor internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior


In-group/out-group bias 

In-group/out-group bias refers to a pattern of favoring members of one’s group over out-group members


ultimate attribution error

The ultimate attribution error is the tendency for people to explain an out-group’s negative behavior as being due to personality flaws (as described in the psg), and to explain an out-group’s positive behavior as the result of chance or circumstance



Stereotyping refers to the attribution of certain characteristics to an individual on the basis of his or her membership in a particular group


Social schemas

are cognitive structures that guide the information processing of ideas about categories of social events and people. When a social schema is made more accessible through priming, it can be activated and used more quickly in a particular situation.


Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory

discusses how inconsistency among attitudes (cognitive dissonance) propels people in the direction of attitude change.


Illusory correlation

refers to people’s overestimation of instances that support their beliefs about the association between two things. 


Social cognitive theory

refers to Albert Bandura’s theory that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction among the person, environment, and behavior.


Classical conditioning

refers to learning as a result of pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus



refers to learning based on observing and imitating the behavior of another


Negative reinforcement

is the strengthening of a response by removal of an aversive stimulus

removes a painful or unwanted stimulus (like an electric shock) in order to similarly encourage the desired behavior



reinforcement schedules and their resistance to extinction

**Psychology: Learning**

A continuous reinforcement schedule is less resistant to extinction than an intermittent reinforcement schedule. A variable-ratio reinforcement schedule is more resistant to extinction than a fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule. A fixed-interval reinforcement schedule is less resistant to extinction than a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule.


The rules that govern appropriate emotional responses vary from culture to culture. These social mores are called:

display rules


Emotional expression


is what is being regulated by the display rules



are a series of set activities, which can include gestures or words, that occur in a set place and in a set order; the social rules governing the expression of emotions do not (generally) address the order or place of the emotional display


Emotional responses 

refers to the experience of feeling emotions, which is thought to be innate; there is no such thing as "cultural emotions," per se 


When a person belonging to a minority group is primed to recall his or her minority status while engaged in a task that is traditionally thought of as not typical for that group, the individual tends to perform worse than if he or she had not been reminded of the prejudice associated with that status. What is this phenomenon called?

Stereotype threat

When people are primed with a negative stereotype about their group’s expected performance in a particular subject, they tend to do worse than if there had been no priming (a phenomenon known as stereotype threat). For example, when female participants are led to believe that the difficult math test they are taking is one on which women do worse than men, they tend to perform in line with the stereotype that "women are bad at math." However, when the second half of the test is presented to the same group without the gender priming, there are no gender differences in outcome. The priming can be as simple as having men outnumber women in a room




includes the actions, beliefs, or social systems that place different races in a hierarchy based on stereotyped expectations of people based on their racial characteristics; the concept does not deal directly with performance


Unstable self-esteem

The concept of self-esteem is not used to refer to group stereotypes, but is the worth a person places on him or her self 



Self-verification posits that people wish others to perceive them as they perceive themselves; a positive view of a person that is not in line with his or her self-concept is likely to be rejected


The bystander effect

Social loafing

Social facilitation

1. someone get's attacked, and all the bystanders do nothing. The more bystanders there are, the less likely someone helps out.

2. you pitch in less effort on a group project than an individual project

3. people perform simple tasks better when in the presence of others. Eg. you can hike longer when with other people, or you study better when you have a study buddy. This rule does not apply for complex tasks since you might get nervous and mess up.


All of the following are true of learned helplessness, EXCEPT that:

it is often linked to an internal locus of control

Learned helplessness occurs when an organism is repeatedly subjected to a negative or aversive stimulus that cannot be escaped or avoided; eventually, the organism will give up trying to avoid or escape the stimulus and behave as though it were utterly helpless to change the situation. Even when opportunities to escape are presented, learned helplessness will prevent any action. Individuals with an internal locus of control tend to believe that they are capable of controlling events in their lives; in contrast, those with an external locus of control tend to feel as though life events are out of their control. Learned helplessness is associated with an external (not internal) locus of control. Learned helplessness does often result in a cognitive expectation that nothing the individual does will prevent or eliminate a negative or aversive outcome. It is also true that while learned helplessness is strongly tied to animal psychology and behavior (it was first discovered and demonstrated through extensive experiments with dogs), psychologists believe that learned helplessness also applies to many situations involving human beings. Psychologists have also theorized that learned helplessness is associated with several psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety.



If a grocery store clerk diagnosed with schizophrenia were to adamantly believe that she was a celebrity, and that the paparazzi had installed cameras in her home to watch her every move, she would most likely be diagnosed with what type of schizophrenia?

Paranoid schizophrenia


Paranoid schizophrenia

is primarily marked by delusions of grandeur and/or persecution


Disorganized schizophrenia

is associated with such symptoms as inappropriate affect, extreme social withdrawal, grotesque mannerisms, and bizarre behavior; it does not explain the scenario described in the question stem


Catatonic schizophrenia

is frequently associated with either complete stillness and stupor, or a high level of agitation and great excitement; this type of schizophrenia also does not explain the beliefs and behaviors of the woman in the question stem


Undifferentiated schizophrenia 

describes types of schizophrenia that do not fall neatly into the other three categories; it does not best explain the clerk’s behavior, which more clearly suggests paranoid schizophrenia


Gender studies have been of interest to scholars of various academic disciplines, including sociologists. Those sociologists who adhere to the functionalist perspective would note that gender stratification and gender roles:

exist to maximize social coherence; for example, men have instrumental social roles and women have expressive social roles.

The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is concerned with structural processes that maintain social order. Based on this theoretical perspective, social functioning is possible through the independent contributions of individual social structures. Thus, it is expected that sociological theorists interested in functionalism would research the contributions of gender stratification to overall social cohesion.  Functionalists might propose that men and women have separate social roles, which together have social benefits. For example, it might be expected that men are represented in the workplace and that women are represented in the household, both of which contribute to social coherence.