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Flashcards in Psychology exam review Deck (45)
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1

what is psychology

the study of our mental process and behaviour

2

case studies...

observation of individual/group over long period

3

experiments...

determining one factor's relevance to another

4

sample surveys...

get info about behaviours through large groups drawing conclusions from characteristics chosen

5

interviews...

questions prepared to get detailed info

6

unstructured observation...

learn responses to situations w/out planned ideas

7

structured observation...

planning what will be studied

8

participant observation...

involving yourself in group activities

9

correlational study...

studying association btw events (existing data)

10

historical analysis...

census data for info on attitudes, patterns, etc that change over time

11

content analysis...

draws together existing research to answer bigger questions

12

psychological perspective: behavioural
(dog)

- Watson, Pilov, and Skinner
- study of observable behaviour
- Pavlov's dogs (bell=salivation)

13

psychological perspective: psychodynamics
(impulses)

- Freud
- theories explaining human behaviour in terms of unconscious dynamics w/in the brain
- impulses: agressive and sexual

14

psychological perspective: cognitive
(remember)

- mental process in memory, thought, and perception
- study how we remember and violence/responses

15

psychological perspective: physiological
(brain tumor)

- bodily events associated w/ feelings and thoughts
- interested in psychological causes (brain tumours)

16

psychological perspective: sociocultural
(community)

- look at experience of a community to explain an individuals behaviour
- gender roles affect emotion

17

psychological perspective: humanists
(hierarchy)

- Maslow and Rogers
- people grow at own pace individually
- mallows hierarchy of needs

18

The brain: 4 main parts

1. frontal lobe (emotion and judgement)
2. parietal lobe (sensory i.e. touch)
3. occipital lobe (vision)
4. temporal lobe (hearing & memory)

19

The brain: other parts

1. corpus callosum (brain side communication)
2. pons (connects cerebellum and cerebrum)
3. pituitary gland (secretes hormones)
4. medulla oblongata (impulses i.e. heartbeat)
5. cerebellum (posture and balance)
6. spinal cord (vertebrae)

20

left brain

- math, language, right side
- practical "men side"

21

right brain

- artistic, 3d images, holistic thought, left side
- artistic "woman side"

22

ambidextrous

- ability to use both sides of brain equally well

23

learning: classical conditioning

- Pavlov
- learning by association of events
- normal reaction + stimulus = new action

24

learning: operant conditioning

- Skinner
- association of events
- reinforcements (good behaviour) and punishments (bad behaviour)
- positive (adding) and negative (taking away)

25

learning: observant learning

- learning by listening, watching, etc.
- STAGES: attention, retention, production process, motivation, observational learning

26

learning: latent learning

- new behaviour not shown until needed
- remember streets, navigate in future

27

learning: insight learning

- intellectual learning
- use intelligence to problem solve

28

memory stages

1. encoding (processing)
2. storage (long or short)
3. retrieval (stimuli)

29

types of memories

1. sensory (1 sec)
2. short term (20 secs)
3. long term (unlimited)

30

amnesia types

biogenic - physical damage to brain
psychogenic - psychological disorder
retrograde - loss of memory
anterograde - unable to make memories