Psychology 100 chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology 100 chapter 8 Deck (140)
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1

Define emotion

A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity

2

Define James-Lange theory

The theory that stimulus triggers activity in the body, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain. It suggests that stimuli trigger specific physiological states which are then after experienced as emotions.

3

Define Cannon-Bard theory

The theory that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the body and emotional experience in the brain. It suggests that stimuli trigger both specific physiological states and emotional experiences independently.

4

Define two-factor theory

The theory that emotions are based on inferences about the causes of physiological arousal. It suggests that stimuli trigger general physiological arousal whose cause the brain interprets, and this interpretation leads to emotional experience.

5

What do psychologists use to create a map of those experiences?

A technique known as multidimensional scaling

6

Why do psychologists use multidimensional scaling?

Because it captures all emotional experience and their differences on valence and arousal

7

What are two dimensions emotion vary in?

Valence and arousal

8

Define valence

How positive or negative the experience is

9

Define arousal

How active or passive the experience is

10

Emotional experience is the consequence of our physiological reactions to objects and events. Which theory is this relating to?

James-Lange theory

11

Why did Cannon claim his theory was better than James-Lange theory? 3 reasons

- Emotions happen quickly even though the body often reacts slowly
- People often have difficulty accurately detecting bodily responses
- Nonemotional stimuli (like change in room temperature) can cause the same bodily response as emotional stimuli do

12

Define undifferentiated physiological arousal

Different interpretations of a single pattern of bodily activity

13

How did the two-factor theory of emotion expand on earlier theories?

James/Lange were correct to equate emotion with perception of one's bodily reactions.Cannon/Bard were right to note that there aren't enough distinct bodily reactions to account for wide variety of emotions that are experiences. THUS, they proposed that stimuli trigger general physiological arousal whose cause the brain then interprets, which leads to an emotional experience

14

Define appraisal

An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus

15

Fun fact: Different emotions do seem to have different underlying patterns of physiological arousal despite the two-factor theory claims.

Anger, fear and sadness all produce higher heart rates compared to happiness, surprise and disgust

16

What are four effects of having a damaged amygdala?

Uncontrollable sex drive
Uncontrollable eating urge
Fearless
Unable to recognize anger, disgust and fear.

17

Before an animal can feel fear, its brain must first decide that there is something to be afraid of. What is this decision called?

Appraisal

18

What parts of the brain makes the appraisals?

Amygdala

19

Describe how a stimulus goes through the brain with two pathways?

- Fast pathway which goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala
- Slow pathway which goes form the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala

20

Why does the slow pathway go through the cortex?

The cortex conduct a full-scale investigation of the stimulus's identity and importance

21

In the slow pathway, can people be afraid of something before they know what it is?

yes

22

How do the limbic system and cortex interact to produce emotion?

The thalamus sends information to the cortex to analyze. Once it finishes analyzing, it sends a signal to the amygdala of what the stimulus is and how to react to it which causes emotion

23

Define emotion regulation

The strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience

24

Define reappraisal

Changing one's emotional experience by changing the way one thinks about the emotion-eliciting stimulus

25

What are a few emotion regulation? 3 things

Suppression
Affect labeling (putting one's feelings into words)
Reappraisal

26

Define emotional expression

An observable sign of an emotional state

27

Define universality hypothesis

Emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone

28

Why are we "walking, talking advertisements" of our inner states?

Because of how we show our emotional state to others

29

What are human unique movements called and how many are there?

46 unique movements called action units. (Ex. Cheek puffer"

30

What are the six basic emotions that all humans can agree upon?

Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise