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Define emotion

A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity


Define James-Lange theory

The theory that stimulus triggers activity in the body, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain. It suggests that stimuli trigger specific physiological states which are then after experienced as emotions.


Define Cannon-Bard theory

The theory that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the body and emotional experience in the brain. It suggests that stimuli trigger both specific physiological states and emotional experiences independently.


Define two-factor theory

The theory that emotions are based on inferences about the causes of physiological arousal. It suggests that stimuli trigger general physiological arousal whose cause the brain interprets, and this interpretation leads to emotional experience.


What do psychologists use to create a map of those experiences?

A technique known as multidimensional scaling


Why do psychologists use multidimensional scaling?

Because it captures all emotional experience and their differences on valence and arousal


What are two dimensions emotion vary in?

Valence and arousal


Define valence

How positive or negative the experience is


Define arousal

How active or passive the experience is


Emotional experience is the consequence of our physiological reactions to objects and events. Which theory is this relating to?

James-Lange theory


Why did Cannon claim his theory was better than James-Lange theory? 3 reasons

- Emotions happen quickly even though the body often reacts slowly
- People often have difficulty accurately detecting bodily responses
- Nonemotional stimuli (like change in room temperature) can cause the same bodily response as emotional stimuli do


Define undifferentiated physiological arousal

Different interpretations of a single pattern of bodily activity


How did the two-factor theory of emotion expand on earlier theories?

James/Lange were correct to equate emotion with perception of one's bodily reactions.Cannon/Bard were right to note that there aren't enough distinct bodily reactions to account for wide variety of emotions that are experiences. THUS, they proposed that stimuli trigger general physiological arousal whose cause the brain then interprets, which leads to an emotional experience


Define appraisal

An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus


Fun fact: Different emotions do seem to have different underlying patterns of physiological arousal despite the two-factor theory claims.

Anger, fear and sadness all produce higher heart rates compared to happiness, surprise and disgust


What are four effects of having a damaged amygdala?

Uncontrollable sex drive
Uncontrollable eating urge
Unable to recognize anger, disgust and fear.


Before an animal can feel fear, its brain must first decide that there is something to be afraid of. What is this decision called?



What parts of the brain makes the appraisals?



Describe how a stimulus goes through the brain with two pathways?

- Fast pathway which goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala
- Slow pathway which goes form the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala


Why does the slow pathway go through the cortex?

The cortex conduct a full-scale investigation of the stimulus's identity and importance


In the slow pathway, can people be afraid of something before they know what it is?



How do the limbic system and cortex interact to produce emotion?

The thalamus sends information to the cortex to analyze. Once it finishes analyzing, it sends a signal to the amygdala of what the stimulus is and how to react to it which causes emotion


Define emotion regulation

The strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience


Define reappraisal

Changing one's emotional experience by changing the way one thinks about the emotion-eliciting stimulus


What are a few emotion regulation? 3 things

Affect labeling (putting one's feelings into words)


Define emotional expression

An observable sign of an emotional state


Define universality hypothesis

Emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone


Why are we "walking, talking advertisements" of our inner states?

Because of how we show our emotional state to others


What are human unique movements called and how many are there?

46 unique movements called action units. (Ex. Cheek puffer"


What are the six basic emotions that all humans can agree upon?

Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise