Flashcards in Psychology 100 chapter 8 Deck (140)
A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
Define James-Lange theory
The theory that stimulus triggers activity in the body, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain. It suggests that stimuli trigger specific physiological states which are then after experienced as emotions.
Define Cannon-Bard theory
The theory that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the body and emotional experience in the brain. It suggests that stimuli trigger both specific physiological states and emotional experiences independently.
Define two-factor theory
The theory that emotions are based on inferences about the causes of physiological arousal. It suggests that stimuli trigger general physiological arousal whose cause the brain interprets, and this interpretation leads to emotional experience.
What do psychologists use to create a map of those experiences?
A technique known as multidimensional scaling
Why do psychologists use multidimensional scaling?
Because it captures all emotional experience and their differences on valence and arousal
What are two dimensions emotion vary in?
Valence and arousal
How positive or negative the experience is
How active or passive the experience is
Emotional experience is the consequence of our physiological reactions to objects and events. Which theory is this relating to?
Why did Cannon claim his theory was better than James-Lange theory? 3 reasons
- Emotions happen quickly even though the body often reacts slowly
- People often have difficulty accurately detecting bodily responses
- Nonemotional stimuli (like change in room temperature) can cause the same bodily response as emotional stimuli do
Define undifferentiated physiological arousal
Different interpretations of a single pattern of bodily activity
How did the two-factor theory of emotion expand on earlier theories?
James/Lange were correct to equate emotion with perception of one's bodily reactions.Cannon/Bard were right to note that there aren't enough distinct bodily reactions to account for wide variety of emotions that are experiences. THUS, they proposed that stimuli trigger general physiological arousal whose cause the brain then interprets, which leads to an emotional experience
An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus
Fun fact: Different emotions do seem to have different underlying patterns of physiological arousal despite the two-factor theory claims.
Anger, fear and sadness all produce higher heart rates compared to happiness, surprise and disgust
What are four effects of having a damaged amygdala?
Uncontrollable sex drive
Uncontrollable eating urge
Unable to recognize anger, disgust and fear.
Before an animal can feel fear, its brain must first decide that there is something to be afraid of. What is this decision called?
What parts of the brain makes the appraisals?
Describe how a stimulus goes through the brain with two pathways?
- Fast pathway which goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala
- Slow pathway which goes form the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala
Why does the slow pathway go through the cortex?
The cortex conduct a full-scale investigation of the stimulus's identity and importance
In the slow pathway, can people be afraid of something before they know what it is?
How do the limbic system and cortex interact to produce emotion?
The thalamus sends information to the cortex to analyze. Once it finishes analyzing, it sends a signal to the amygdala of what the stimulus is and how to react to it which causes emotion
Define emotion regulation
The strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience
Changing one's emotional experience by changing the way one thinks about the emotion-eliciting stimulus
What are a few emotion regulation? 3 things
Affect labeling (putting one's feelings into words)
Define emotional expression
An observable sign of an emotional state
Define universality hypothesis
Emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone
Why are we "walking, talking advertisements" of our inner states?
Because of how we show our emotional state to others
What are human unique movements called and how many are there?
46 unique movements called action units. (Ex. Cheek puffer"