Psychology 100 Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology 100 Chapter 7 Deck (133)
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1

Define learning

The acquisition of new knowledge, skills or responses from experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.

2

Define habituation

A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding

3

Define sensitization

A simple form of learning that occurs when presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus

4

Define classical conditioning

A type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response.

5

Define unconditioned stimulus (US)

Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism

6

Define unconditioned response (UR)

A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus

7

What are the three key ideas of learning?

Learning is based on experience
Learning produces changes in the organism
These changes are relatively permanent

8

Fun fact:

Kandel demonstrated that tiny sea slug Aplysia exhibits habituation and sensitzation

9

When a dog learns to salivate to sounds of bell that is followed by food, what is this learning referring to?
A) Sensitization
B) Classical conditioning
C) Unconditioned stimulus
D) Habituation

B) Classical conditioning

10

Define conditioned stimulus (CS)

A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with a US.

11

Define conditioned response (CR)

A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus

12

Define acquisition

The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together

13

Define second-order conditioning

Conditioning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure.

14

A dog is presented a bowl of food. He starts to salivate. What is the food represents?
A) Unconditioned response
B) Classical conditioning
C) Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

C) Unconditioned stimulus

15

A dog is presented a bowl of food. He starts to salivate. What does the dog's response represents?
A) Unconditioned response
B) Conditioned response
C) Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

A) Unconditioned response

16

The dog hears a bell. He produces no salivation and does nothing. What does the dog's response represents?
A) No Unconditioned response
B) Learn
C) No Unconditioned stimulus
D) No Conditioned stimulus

A) No Unconditioned response

17

The dog hears a bell. He produces no salivation and does nothing. What does the bell represents?
A) Unconditioned stimulus
B) Neural stimulus
C) No Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

B) Neural stimulus

18

The dog hears a bell and is served a bowl of food. He produces salivation. What does the bell represents?
A) Unconditioned stimulus
B) Neural stimulus
C) No Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

D) Conditioned stimulus

19

The dog hears a bell and is served a bowl of food. He produces salivation. What does the food represents?
A) Unconditioned stimulus
B) Neural stimulus
C) No Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

A) Unconditioned stimulus

20

The dog hears a bell and is served a bowl of food. He produces salivation. What does the dog's response represents?
A) Unconditioned response
B) Conditioned response
C) Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

B) Conditioned response

21

After the dog hears a bell and is served a bowl of food, he hears the bell again. He produces salivation. What does the dog's response represents?
A) Unconditioned response
B) Conditioned response
C) Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

B) Conditioned response

22

After the dog hears a bell and is served a bowl of food, he hears the bell again. He produces salivation. What does the bell represents?
A) Unconditioned response
B) Conditioned response
C) Unconditioned stimulus
D) Conditioned stimulus

D) Conditioned stimulus

23

Fun fact:

Pavlov was the one to demonstrate us about classical learning using dogs.

24

Define extinction

The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeated presented without the US.

25

Define spontaneous recovery

The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period

26

Define generalization

The conditioned response is observed even though the conditioned stimulus is slightly different from the original condition stimulus used during acquisition

27

Define discrimination

The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimulus

28

What happens when conditioned stimulus is presented without unconditioned stimulus repeatedly?

Extinction

29

Does extinction mean learning is completely erased?

No it means the conditioned response was weakened but not eliminated

30

How can a change in a "can opener" affect a conditioned dog's response?

Through generalization