Psychology 100 Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

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Who was Jill Price?

A women who had extraordinary autobiographical memory


Define memory

The ability to store and retrieve information over time.


What are 3 key functions of memory?



Define encoding

The process of transforming what we perceive, think or feel into an enduring memory


Define storage

The process of maintaining information in memory over time


Define retrieval

The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored


What is the average number of items an average person can remember?

About 7 items long


Is memory like recording? If not, then what is memory like?

No. Memory is like cooking where we combine information we already have in our brains with new information that comes in through our senses.


What are 3 types of encoding processes?

Semantic encoding
Visual imagery encoding
Organizational encoding


What are 3 types of judgments?

Semantic judgments
Rhyme judgments
Visual judgments


Define semantic judgment

Judgment that requires the person to think about the meaning of the words.


Define rhyme judgment

Judgment that requires the person to think about the sound of the words


Define visual judgment

Judgments that require the person to think about the appearance of the words


What kind of encoding processes and judgment did Bubbles use to remember a sting of digits?

Semantic encoding and semantic judgment


Define semantic encoding

The process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory


What are two parts of the brain where semantic encoding takes place?

Increased activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe and the inner part of the left temporal lobe


Define visual imagery encoding

The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures


Which type of judgment is most effective?

semantic judgments


In an experiment, which participants performed better? The group that used visual imagery encoding or the group that mentally repeated the words in their heads?

The group that used visual imagery encoding performed better and were able to remember twice as much as the group that mentally repeated.


What are 2 reasons visual imagery encoding works so well?

1. Visual imagery encoding does some of the same things that semantic encoding does by relating new information with old information that you already have
2. When you use visual imagery encoding, you have two different mental placeholders for that piece of memory (a verbal one and a visual one)


Which part of the brain is active during semantic judgments?

The lower left frontal lobe is active


Which part of the brain is active during visual judgments?

The occipital lobe is active


What part of the brain is active during organizational judgments?

The upper left frontal lobe is active


Define organizational encoding

The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items


If you were a server, what kind of encoding would you use to take an order and how?

Organizational encoding by chunking


If you were going to the grocery store and wanted to remember to buy coke, popcorn, and cheese dip, what kind of encoding would you use?

Visual imagery encoding by using remember the location of these items


Which type of encoding helps to retrieve memory easier?

Organizational encoding


What were the results of an experiment where 3 groups were asked to rate randomly chosen words out of 5? 2 things

- The 3 groups were survival-encoding group, moving-encoding group and pleasantness-encoding group.
- The survival-encoding group recalled more words than the other two groups.


Why was survival encoding better than moving-encoding and pleasantness-encoding? 2 reasons

1. Survival-encoding involves elements of semantic, visual imagery and organizational encoding unlike the other two groups.
2. Survival-encoding also encourages participants to engage in extensive planning


What are 3 kind of memory storage?

Sensory, short-term and long-term