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Flashcards in Psychology 100 Chapter 3 Deck (355)
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1

Define neurons

Cells in the nervous system that communicate
with one another to perform information-processing tasks.

2

Define cell body (or soma)

The part of a neuron that coordinates
information-processing tasks and keeps
the cell alive.

3

Define dendrite

The tree branch looking part of a neuron that receives information
from other neurons and relays it to the
cell body.

4

Define axon

The part of a neuron that carries information
to other neurons, muscles, or glands.

5

What is the approximate amount of nerve cells in our brains?

100 billion nerve cells

6

How many output does our brain produce a day?

trillions

7

How fast does neuron's signal go?

25-200kph

8

Who discovered the complex structures of neurons and how?

Cajal by using a Golgi stain (staining neurons in the brains)

9

What are the 3 parts of the neurons?

Cell body, dendrites and axon

10

What is the largest part of the neurons?

Cell body

11

What is the function of cell body? (5 things)

Protein synthesis, energy production, metabolism, houses the chromosomes with DNA and maintains the health of the cell.

12

What does the cell body contain? (2 things)

Nucleus and surrounded by cell membrane

13

What does the nucleus contain? (1 thing)

Chromosomes that contain our DNA

14

What is the function of cell membrane? (1 thing)

Allow molecules to flow into and out of the cell body

15

Do the dendrites and axons touch each other?

No

16

What are the two types of specialized extensions of the cell membrane that allow neurons to communicate?

Dendrites and axons

17

Fun fact: Axons can be

very long even stretching up to a meter

18

Define myelin sheath

An insulating layer of fatty material.

19

Define glail cells

Support cells found in the nervous system

20

Define synapse

The junction or region between the axon of
one neuron and the dendrites or cell body
of another.

21

Define sensory neurons

Neurons that receive information from the
external world and convey this information
to the brain via the spinal cord.

22

Define motor neurons

Neurons that carry signals from the spinal
cord to the muscles to produce movement.

23

Define interneurons

Neurons that connect sensory neurons,
motor neurons, or other interneurons.

24

What are axons covered by? (1 thing)

myelin sheath

25

What are myelin sheath composed of?

Glial cells

26

Which are there more of? Glial cells or neurons?

glial cells

27

What is the purpose of an axon that is covered by myelin sheath?

An axon with myelin sheath is able to transmit signals to other neurons, organs or muscles more efficiently.

28

What is one effect of demyelinated diseases? 3 things

Slower transmission of information from one neuron to another which can lead to loss of feeling in the limbs, partial blindness and difficulties in coordinated movement and cognition.

29

What is the small gap between the axon of one neuron and dendrites or cell body of another called?

synapse

30

The transmission of information across the _______ is fundamental to communication between neurons.

synapse