Flashcards in Psychology 100 Chapter 2 Deck (131)
Define scientific method
A procedure for finding truth by using empirical evidence
a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
A falsifiable prediction made by a theory
A doctor who thought that the best way to understand illness was to develop theories about the body's functions
The tendency for people to cling to their assumptions
What is the essential element of the scientific method
Define the rule of parsimony
The rule that says the simplest theory that explains all the evidence is the best one.
Who created the rule of parsimony?
Why can theories be proven wrong but not right?
Because theories must be consistently right for all cases. If it is not proven wrong, then it is right. Suppose if there was one case that the theory was incorrect, then the theory has been proven wrong.
Define empirical method
A set of rules and techniques for observation
What are three qualities that people have that make them difficult to study behaviour?
Complexity(human brain), variability(every human is different), and reactivity(people behave differently if they know they are being studied)
What are the two methods that psychologist developed to overcome the three qualities that make it difficult to study behaviour?
The method of observation and the method of explanation
Define method of observation
a method which allows psychologist to determine what people do
Define method of explanation
a method which allows psychologist to determine why people do it
What are the problems with "casual observations"?(2 things)
1.They are unstable. (Ex. Apple appears red in daylight and crimson at night)
2. They do not tell us about all of the properties that interest us.
How do scientists overcome the problems of casual observations? (2 things)
Measurement and description
What two things does measurement require?
defining and detecting
Define operational definition
A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
Anything that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers
the goodness with which a concrete event defines a property
the tendency for an instrument to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
An instrument's ability to detect small magnitudes of the property
define demand characteristics
Those aspects of an observational setting
that cause people to behave as they think
someone else wants or expects.
Define naturalistic observation
A technique for gathering scientific information
by unobtrusively observing people
in their natural environments.
What are two things required for scientific measurement?
Having an operational definition that specifies a measurable event and an instrument that measures that event
What is the most important feature of an operational definition?
What are the most important feature of an instrument? (2 things)
Reliability and power
What are the properties of a good operational definition and a good instrument? (3 things)
Operational definition - validity
Instrument - Reliability and power
How do people respond when they know they're being observed?
They behave differently when they know that they are being observed because of demand characteristics.