Psychology 100 Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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1

Define scientific method

A procedure for finding truth by using empirical evidence

2

Define Theory

a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon

3

Define Hypothesis

A falsifiable prediction made by a theory

4

Define dogmatists

A doctor who thought that the best way to understand illness was to develop theories about the body's functions

5

Define dogmatism

The tendency for people to cling to their assumptions

6

What is the essential element of the scientific method

empiricism

7

Define the rule of parsimony

The rule that says the simplest theory that explains all the evidence is the best one.

8

Who created the rule of parsimony?

William Ockham

9

Why can theories be proven wrong but not right?

Because theories must be consistently right for all cases. If it is not proven wrong, then it is right. Suppose if there was one case that the theory was incorrect, then the theory has been proven wrong.

10

Define empirical method

A set of rules and techniques for observation

11

What are three qualities that people have that make them difficult to study behaviour?

Complexity(human brain), variability(every human is different), and reactivity(people behave differently if they know they are being studied)

12

What are the two methods that psychologist developed to overcome the three qualities that make it difficult to study behaviour?

The method of observation and the method of explanation

13

Define method of observation

a method which allows psychologist to determine what people do

14

Define method of explanation

a method which allows psychologist to determine why people do it

15

What are the problems with "casual observations"?(2 things)

1.They are unstable. (Ex. Apple appears red in daylight and crimson at night)
2. They do not tell us about all of the properties that interest us.

16

How do scientists overcome the problems of casual observations? (2 things)

Measurement and description

17

What two things does measurement require?

defining and detecting

18

Define operational definition

A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms

19

Define instrument

Anything that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers

20

Define Validity

the goodness with which a concrete event defines a property

21

Define reliability

the tendency for an instrument to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing

22

define power

An instrument's ability to detect small magnitudes of the property

23

define demand characteristics

Those aspects of an observational setting
that cause people to behave as they think
someone else wants or expects.

24

Define naturalistic observation

A technique for gathering scientific information
by unobtrusively observing people
in their natural environments.

25

What are two things required for scientific measurement?

Having an operational definition that specifies a measurable event and an instrument that measures that event

26

What is the most important feature of an operational definition?

Validity

27

What are the most important feature of an instrument? (2 things)

Reliability and power

28

What are the properties of a good operational definition and a good instrument? (3 things)

Operational definition - validity
Instrument - Reliability and power

29

How do people respond when they know they're being observed?

They behave differently when they know that they are being observed because of demand characteristics.

30

Why isn't naturalistic observation a viable solution to problems of demand characteristics? (2 reasons)

1. Some of the things don't occur naturally/often like people becoming depressed because boxing sale is over.
2. Some of the things can only be observe through direct interaction like an interview.