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Flashcards in Psych/Soc Class 6 Deck (94)
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31

How long each memory stays
-> iconic memory
-> echoic/acoustic
->STM
->LTM

Iconic - < 1 second
Echoic - 2-4 seconds
STM - 15-30 seconds
LTM - permanent storage with unknown upper limit to capacity

32

Semantic networks

Organize acquired information in our memory
*unique to each person (used to be thought

33

Spreading activation

As one node is activated, it triggers other nodes to activate

34

Retrieval

Process of finding information stored in memory

35

Types of retrieval

Free Recall - random recall of info
Cued Recall - giving a list of states & asking for each capital
Recognition - multiple choice
Relearning - you use it or lose it

36

Retrieval Cue

Any stimulus that assists in memory retrieval

37

Priming

Occurs when exposure to one stimulus influences response to another stimulus
Positive priming - speeds up processing
Negative priming - slows down processing

38

Context-dependent Memory (Context effect)

Better at retrieving information in the same environmental context which the info was learned

39

State-dependent memory (state dependency effect)

Better at remembering when we are in the same internal state (Drug, comfort, pain, mood) that we were when we info was encoded

40

Types of Memory

Flashbulb memory
Eidetic memory (photographic memory)
Reproductive memory
Prospective memory
Dual coding theory
Levels of Processing Model
Reminiscence Bump
Practice Effects
Method of Loci
Peg Words

41

Eidetic Memory

Able to vividly recall images from memory after only few instances of exposure with high precision for a brief time after exposure without using a mnemonic device

42

Flashbulb Memory

People can (or claim to) remember great detail about their episodic memories of particularly emotionally arousing events

43

Reproductive Memory

Accurate retrieval of information from memory, without significant alteration

44

Prospective Memory

Remembering to perform a planned action or recall a planned intention at some future point in time
Ex. remembering to do next assignment before next class

45

Dual Coding Theory

Theory that holds that combo of words with visuals provides us with two different channels for later recall, which assists in memory retrieval. Thus learning is better when words are presented with relevant images or such images are imagined by the learner

46

Levels of Processing Model

Focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory
- Predicts the deeper info is processed, the longer a memory trace will last

47

Reminiscence Bump

Older adults generally remember events they experiences from 10-30 yrs old better than any other time period, including more recent time periods

48

Practice Effects

Improvement that would be expected to occur simply from repeated exposure to a specific memory test
- imp to consider when longitudinally testing a subject with progressively debilitating memory disorder sing the same memory test

49

Intrusion Error

Substitution of an often semantically meaningful word during free & serial recall of word lists
- can also occur in episodic memories

50

Reconstructive process

Theorize that memory is a reconstructive process because each time a memory is retrieved, the memory trace is strengthened, but also potentially altered

51

Displacement

occurs in STM when one item in the list to be remembered bumps out another

52

Forgetting (Sensory memory, STM, LTM)

Sensory memory --> decay
STM --> decay, displacement, intrusion errors
LTM --> decay, interference, retrieval failure

53

Interference

When competing material make it difficult to encode or retrieve information

54

Proactive Interference vs Retroactive interference

Proactive - prior learning interferes with new learning so makes it difficult to encode new memories

Retroactive - recent learning interferes with old learning

55

Memory Errors

Source Monitoring Errors
False memories
Misinformation effect
Anterograde amnesia
Retrograde amnesia
Korsakoff's Syndrome

56

Source Monitoring Error

- also called source amnesia
- misidentify origins of knowledge
- source info stored in source memory

57

False memories

Inverted or distorted recollection of episodic event that did not actually happen

58

Misinformation Effect

When episodic memories become less accurate because post-event information works backwards in time to distort memory of original even through retroactive interference

59

Korsakoff's syndrome

Chronic memory disorder caused by severe deficiency of thiamine(vitamin b1); most commonly caused by alcohol misuse

60

Memory & Cognition in normal aging

Improves
- Semantic memory improves up until 60 then stabilizes
- emotional intelligence

Stable
- Implicit memory
- Crystallized intelligence (ability to retrieve general info)

Declines
- Source memory
- Episodic memory
- Processing speed
- divided attention
- operational span in working memory