Psych/Soc Class 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psych/Soc Class 6 Deck (94)
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1

Right hemisphere

Processes visual & spatial info

2

Left hemisphere

Typically for language processing

3

Damaga to Broca's area

If damaged, leads to expressive aphasia or loss of ability to speak

4

Damage to Wernicke's area

If damaged to left temporal lobe, results in receptive aphasia or inability to comprehend speech

5

Contralateral processing

See things in left visual field but unable to visual process b/c of right hemisphere not connected (vice versa except can't communicate)

6

Limbic System

Consists of hypothalamus, hippocampus & amygdala
- primarily responsible for emotions & forming memories, motivation

7

Thalamus

- Relays sensory information (eg. arousal) & motor information
Receives & relays info from visual & auditory centers
- plays an important role in regulating consciousness and alertness

8

Hippocampus

Involved in processing & integrating memories
- Damage does not affect existing memories because those are stored in cortex, instead it prevents formation of new memories
- important in converting STM --> LTM

9

Anterograde amnesia

Loss in ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to partial or complete inability to recall the recent past while LTM from before are intact

10

Retrograde amnesia

Loss of access to events that occurred before onset of disease

11

Amygdala

Expresses anger & frustration primarily

12

Hypothalamus

Controls water & temperature balance in body, as well as hunger & sex drive
- activated endocrine system & SNS

13

Working memory rehearsal buffer capacity

7 +/- 2

14

LTM pathway

1. Sensory information goes to thalamus
2. If no further processing, thalamus filters out sensory info
3. If processing needed, goes to visual cortex in occipital lobe
4. Then gets encoded in hippocampus
5. Then goes to amygdala

15

Functional techniques of brain

PET
- produces images through diffusion of radioactive glucose
- the more active the area in the brain is in use, the more glucose used because glucose is a primary fuel for brain cells

fMRI
- able to view brain as it's working
- rapid sequencing of MRI images

EEG
- measures sudden changes in brain electrical activity through electrodes placed on head
- data can be filtered mathematically to yield volt potentials which allow for localization functions of brain
- gives electrical image during cognitive states/tasks

16

Structural techniques of brain

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
- uses extremely powerful electromagnets & radiowaves to get 3D structural information from brain

CT Scan (CAT scan)
- generates cross-sectional images of brain using series of x-ray pictures from different angles

17

Neural plasticity

Changes in brain due to learning, thinking, behaviour, emotions, etc
- change occurs from cellular to anatomical level

18

Long-term potentiation

Connections between neurons strengthen
- persistant strengthening of synapses (more frequent signals = more stronger)
- the stronger the connection = the more we retrieve for memory & learning

19

Systems consolidation (memory consolidation)

- converts STM to LTM
- 30 second stored in STM and by rehearsing info over and over again, neural connections become strengthened

20

Memory

Encoding
- transfer sensations into memory system

Storage
- retaining information in ST/LTM

Retrieval
- extracting information that's been stored

21

Multi-store model

Store 1 - sensory memory
Store 2 - working memory/STM

1. Sensory input goes through sensory memory (any information not attended will be lost)
2. Attended information goes to STM
3. Rehearsal occurs, and if it is not rehearsed it is lost
4. Goes through consolidation to LTM
5. If it is used it will be retrieved and go through consolidation again, if not used you will lose the information over time

22

Baddeley's model of working memory

Central executive (responsible for coordination of sub-systems, shifting between tasks & selective attention & inhibition)
Divided into:
1. phonological loop --> Semantic verbal memory
- ST phonological store with auditory rehearsal

2. Visuospatial Sketchpad --> Semantic Visual memory
- temporary storage & manipulation of spatial and visual info

3. Episodic Buffer --> Episodic memory
- information integration & linking to LTM

23

Serial position effects

Words in the middle are forgotten

24

Primacy effect

Words in the beginning are remembered

25

Recency effect

Words in the end are remembered

26

Encoding

Process of transforming information into a form that's more easily stored in our brains
- four kinds: semantic (meaning), acoustic (sound), elaborative (association with previous LTM), visual (images

27

Encoding strategies

Rehearsal
- repetition of information leading to retention

Chunking
- grouping related information together into chunks

Elaboration
- intertwining information to be remembered with well entrenched pre-existing long term spatial, visual acoustic or semantic memories

Self-reference
- making information to be remembered personally relevant

Spacing
- memory works better when reviewed material is spaced out over time

Mnemonics
- any technique for improving retention of information

28

Method of loci

- Uses visualization to recall information
- Also called "memory palace", "Mind palace" or "Memory journey"

29

Peg word

Memory technique where you connect words to numbers and create association to improve retention
Example : 1-2 buckle my shoe

30

LTM

LTM branches into Explicit or Implicit Memory

Explicit memory (declarative memory) - conscious recall
Divided into:
1. Episodic memory (events you've personally experienced)
2. Semantic memory (your general knowledge)

Implicit memory (non-declarative memory) - unconscious recall
Divided into:
1. Procedural memory (learning motor skills, physical actions)
2. Classical conditioning (associating neutral stimuli with another stimulus)
3. Priming (activation of knowledge & the influence of behaviour)