Psych/Soc Class 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psych/Soc Class 3 Deck (57)
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1

Impression Management

Also known as self-presentation
- Attempt to manage image by influencing perception of others

2

Self-concept

Also known as self-identity, self-construction or self-perspective
- includes all your beliefs of who you are

Combination of social identity and personal identity

3

What are the important social identities?

Age
Disabilities (developmental)
Disabilities (mental)
Religion
Ethnicity/race
Sexual orientation
Socioeconomic status
Indigenous background
National origin
Gender

4

Self-efficacy

High - believe you are good at doing something
Low - believe you are bad at something

5

Locus of control

Internal - believe you have control
External - believe you do not have control

6

Learned helplessness

Low efficacy + external locus of control

7

Aversive control

Behaviour is motivated by reality or threat of something unpleasant happening

8

Avoidance behaviour

avoidance of predictable, unpleasant stimulus before it is initiated

9

Escape behaviour

Termination of unpredictable, unpleasant stimulus after it is initiated

10

Social Learning Theory

learning takes place in social context & can occur purely through observation, don't need direct reinforcement or reproduction

Also called social learning, vicarious learning or observational learning

11

Social Comparison Theory

Gain accurate self-evaluations by comparing ourselves to others. Our identity is shaped by these comparisons & the types of reference groups we have

12

Stages of Moral Identity

Pre-conventional:
Self Interest - Rules are obeyed for personal growth
Punishment and obedience - rules are obeyed to avoid punishment

Conventional:
Conformity & Interpersonal Accord - Rules obeyed for approval
Authority & Social Order - Rules are obeyed to maintain social order

Post conventional:
Social Construct- impartial rules are obeyed; rules that infringe on rights of others are challenged
Universal Principles - individual establishes own set of rules in accordance with personal ethical principles

13

Social Facilitation Effect

Tendency of performance to improve for simple tasks but worse for novel complex task infront of audience

14

Deindividuation

Situations where there is a high degree of arousal & low degree of personal responsibility, we may lose our sense of restraint & individual identity thereby aligning behaviour with the group

Eg. Protest

15

Bystander Effect

Most people are less likely to help a victim when other people are present

16

Diffusion of responsibility

Occurs when responsibility to intervene in a crisis is inversely proportional to # of people present

17

Social Loafing

When people work in a group, each person is likely to exert less individual effort than if they were working independently

18

Peer pressure

Situations in which individuals feel directly or indirectly pressured to change their behaviour to match that of their peers

19

Peer Groups

Social groups whose members are close in age & share interests
- help children learn to form relationships & are typically most influential during adolescence

20

Groupthink

When desire to achieve harmony & reach 'consensus' decision causes groups to not critically evaluate alternative viewpoints & leads to irrational or dysfunctional decision-making

21

When is groupthink more likely to occur?

- group is overly optimistic ad strongly believes in their stance
- mindguarding
- groups justifies its own decision and demonizes opponents
- individuals feel pressured to censor own opinion thus creates an illusion of group unanimity

22

Mindguarding

Dissenting opinions, information & facts are prevented from entering the group

23

Group Polarization

When group agreement causes the preexisting views of group members to intensify, so on avg view of member of group is accentuated or moves towards one pole
- belief is MORE extreme

24

Conformity

When individuals adjust their behaviour of thinking based on behaviour or thinking of others

25

Obedience

When individuals yield to explicit instructions or orders from authority figure

26

Dispositional vs situational

Dispositional - internal causes
Situational - external causes

27

Fundamental Attribution Error

Attribute another person's behaviour to their personality

28

Actor/observer bias

Attribute your own actions to situation

29

Just world phenomenon

Bad things happen to others because of their own actions

30

Self-serving

Attribute our success to ourselves, but failures to others