Flashcards in Psych/Soc Class 2 Deck (77)
What's a social institution?
Standardized sets of social norms organized to preserve basic societal value
Name 5 social instutions
4. Health & medicine
5. Government, economy & politics
What is education?
A formal process where knowledge, skills & values are systemically transmitted from one individual to another
What is hidden curicculum?
Unintentional lessons about norms, values & beliefs
What is teacher expectancy?
Students tent to match teacher expectations (+/-)
What are the 5 main functions of a family?
1. Affection & Companionship
2. Reproduction & monitoring sexual behaviour
5. Social Status
What is the difference between democracy, monarchy, authoritarian & totalitarian?
Democracy: citizens choose officials to run government
Monarchy: 1 family controls government, power passed through that family
Authoritarian: Citizens not allowed to participate to choose government but are free to do other things
Totalitarian: total control by government
What is the "Iron Law of Oligarchy"?
A small group of people with similar beliefs/interests control large groups & organizations; power is concentrated at top
What is McDonaldization?
The idea that chains overpower society
According to Max Weber, what are the characteristics of ideal bureaucracy?
1. Division of labor
2. Written rules & expectations
3. Impersonality & Neutrality
4. Officials hired & promoted based on technical competence
5. Hierarchal structure
What is medicalization?
Process through which human conditions are defined & treated as medical conditions
What drives medicalization?
1. New info/discoveries regarding conditions
2. Changing social attitudes or economic considerations
3. Development of new medications/treatments
What is the sick role?
Individuals who are ill have certain rights & obligations in society and if they cannot fulfill same duties as a person in good health can, the social allows for a reasonable amount of deviant behavior
1. The right to be exempt from social roles
2. The right to not be responsible for their condition
3. Obligation to try to seek treatment
4. Obligation to try to get better
What are the 3 versions of sick role?
1. Conditional: condition is temp.
2. Unconditional legitimate: condition is incurable
3. Illegitimate: condition is stigmatized by others
What is social epidemiology?
Study of social determinants of health and use social concepts to explain patterns of health in population
What is the socioeconomic gradient of health?
The theory that as socioeconomic factors increase, there is a proportional increase in health and health outcomes
What is the difference between the Malthusian theory and the Demographic Transition Theory?
Malthusian theory - unchecked population growth would quickly exceed carrying capacity, leading to over population & catastrophes
Demographic Transition Theory - socieities transition from high birth & death rate to low birth & death rates
What is gender identity & how is it developed?
Gender identity is the extent to which one identifies with a particular gender (women / man)
Developed through 3 stages:
1. As toddlers/preschoolers you learn defined characteristics, which are socialized aspects of gender
2. 5-7 yrs it is more rigid (consolidation)
3. After peak of rigidity, fluidity returns & socially defined gender roles relax
What's the difference between race & ethnicity?
Race is dividing people into groups based on various sets of shared physical characteristics
Ethnicity is dividing people into groups based on common nationality or shared cultural traditions
Area typically in highly populated lower income urban areas that don't have access to fresh healthy food
Low SES & minority groups tend to live in areas where environmental hazards are disproportionally high
Physical seperation of groups into different areas typically along the lines of race, ethnicity & SES
Tendency of people from the same social groups to interact with each other and have minimal contact with individuals from other social groups
Prejudice vs Discrimination
Prejudice is the belief/judgement towards people based on group membership and discrimination is the biased treatment
Changing neighborhoods through renovations& capital investment that often strips ethnic & cultural character
Population shift from rural to urban areas and can experience inequality
Process of international integration
Groups actions that attempt to promote, resist or undo social change
Measured by combo of education, income & occupation
Defined by power, prestige & property