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Flashcards in Psych/Soc Class 2 Deck (77)
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1

What's a social institution?

Standardized sets of social norms organized to preserve basic societal value

2

Name 5 social instutions

1. Education
2. Family
3. Religion
4. Health & medicine
5. Government, economy & politics

3

What is education?

A formal process where knowledge, skills & values are systemically transmitted from one individual to another

4

What is hidden curicculum?

Unintentional lessons about norms, values & beliefs

5

What is teacher expectancy?

Students tent to match teacher expectations (+/-)

6

What are the 5 main functions of a family?

1. Affection & Companionship
2. Reproduction & monitoring sexual behaviour
3. Protection
4. Socialization
5. Social Status

7

What is the difference between democracy, monarchy, authoritarian & totalitarian?

Democracy: citizens choose officials to run government
Monarchy: 1 family controls government, power passed through that family
Authoritarian: Citizens not allowed to participate to choose government but are free to do other things
Totalitarian: total control by government

8

What is the "Iron Law of Oligarchy"?

A small group of people with similar beliefs/interests control large groups & organizations; power is concentrated at top

9

What is McDonaldization?

The idea that chains overpower society

10

According to Max Weber, what are the characteristics of ideal bureaucracy?

1. Division of labor
2. Written rules & expectations
3. Impersonality & Neutrality
4. Officials hired & promoted based on technical competence
5. Hierarchal structure

11

What is medicalization?

Process through which human conditions are defined & treated as medical conditions

12

What drives medicalization?

1. New info/discoveries regarding conditions
2. Changing social attitudes or economic considerations
3. Development of new medications/treatments

13

What is the sick role?

Individuals who are ill have certain rights & obligations in society and if they cannot fulfill same duties as a person in good health can, the social allows for a reasonable amount of deviant behavior

1. The right to be exempt from social roles
2. The right to not be responsible for their condition
3. Obligation to try to seek treatment
4. Obligation to try to get better

14

What are the 3 versions of sick role?

1. Conditional: condition is temp.
2. Unconditional legitimate: condition is incurable
3. Illegitimate: condition is stigmatized by others

15

What is social epidemiology?

Study of social determinants of health and use social concepts to explain patterns of health in population

16

What is the socioeconomic gradient of health?

The theory that as socioeconomic factors increase, there is a proportional increase in health and health outcomes

17

What is the difference between the Malthusian theory and the Demographic Transition Theory?

Malthusian theory - unchecked population growth would quickly exceed carrying capacity, leading to over population & catastrophes

Demographic Transition Theory - socieities transition from high birth & death rate to low birth & death rates

18

What is gender identity & how is it developed?

Gender identity is the extent to which one identifies with a particular gender (women / man)

Developed through 3 stages:
1. As toddlers/preschoolers you learn defined characteristics, which are socialized aspects of gender
2. 5-7 yrs it is more rigid (consolidation)
3. After peak of rigidity, fluidity returns & socially defined gender roles relax

19

What's the difference between race & ethnicity?

Race is dividing people into groups based on various sets of shared physical characteristics

Ethnicity is dividing people into groups based on common nationality or shared cultural traditions

20

Food desert

Area typically in highly populated lower income urban areas that don't have access to fresh healthy food

21

Environmental Injustice

Low SES & minority groups tend to live in areas where environmental hazards are disproportionally high

22

Residential segregation

Physical seperation of groups into different areas typically along the lines of race, ethnicity & SES

23

Social segregation

Tendency of people from the same social groups to interact with each other and have minimal contact with individuals from other social groups

24

Prejudice vs Discrimination

Prejudice is the belief/judgement towards people based on group membership and discrimination is the biased treatment

25

Gentrification

Changing neighborhoods through renovations& capital investment that often strips ethnic & cultural character

26

Urbanization

Population shift from rural to urban areas and can experience inequality

27

Globalization

Process of international integration

28

Social Movements

Groups actions that attempt to promote, resist or undo social change

29

Socioeconomic Status

Measured by combo of education, income & occupation

Defined by power, prestige & property

30

Relative vs Absolute poverty

Relative - inability to meet avg standard of living defined by a given society

Absolute - inability to secure the basic necessities of life