Flashcards in Psych/Soc Class 1 Deck (37)
Who are the 3 founding fathers of modern sociology?
Durkheim, Marx, Weber
Which theories are macro level?
Functionalism, Conflict, Social Constructionism, Feminism
What is anomie?
Mismatch bw wider societies standards
What is manifest & latent functions respectively?
Manifest - intended, obvious
Latent - unintended, less recognizable
What is socialism?
It's a term that's coined as 'commuism' by Karl Marx. It means productions are owned equally by all workers
What is the difference between class consciousness & false consciousness?
Class consciousness- members of a subordinate group that are actively aware of being exploited as a group by the wealthy
False consciousness - lack f this awareness; members see themselves as individuals instead of an exploited group
What is Max Weber known for?
Asserted that conflict is more than just income. As we increase rationalization (increasing efficiency by maximizing result with minimal efforts) you lead to increase in bureaucracies. He also started the basis of symbolic interactionism.
What theories are micro level?
Symbolic interactionism, social constructionism, rational choice/social exchange theory, feminism
What is symbolic interactionism?
People act based on meaning. These meanings are derived through social interactions.
What are symbols?
Are culturally derived social objects that have shared meanings which are created & maintained through social interaction
What are the 3 stages the self develops in according to Mead?
1. Preparatory Stage (0-2 yrs) - children use language & symbols to mimic those around them
2. Play Stage (2-6 yrs) - children learn to play the roles of others in pretend games
3. Game Stage (7+ yrs) - understand the "generalized other"
What does the actual self consist of?
"Me" (which is the response to social interactions and how the generalized other sees us) and the response to this social self is the I (personal identity and individuality)
What is the 'looking-glass'?
It is the self that is shaped by others because individuals tend to confirm expectations. According to Cooley, concept of one's self is developed in 3 stages:
1) We imagine how we appear to others
2) We imagine what they think about us based on observations
3) We develop feelings about ourselves (true or false) based on judgements of others
What is socialization?
It is the dynamic process by which an individual internalizes the values, beliefs & norms of their society & learns to function as a member of that society.
Difference between rational choice theory & social exchange theory?
Both look at economic factors externally. RCT looks at increasing benefits and reducing costs while SET looks at increasing rewards and reducing punishments. SET looks at relationships too.
What are the differences of the 3 waves in feminism?
First wave (1900) - focused on women's suffrage: right to vote, right to own property, equal rights in marriage, work for wages
Second wave (1960-1970) - focused on women's social liberties: equal pay, reproductive rights, gender equality, sexual destigmatization
Third wave (1980): focused on intersectionality: study of different social identifies such as gender, race, class etc interact
How did the Feminist theory emerge?
From movements in 19th & 20th century advocating for equal political, economic & social rights of women in society
What is a society?
Group of people that share a culture and interact with each other in a definable area
What is sociology?
The study of how people interact and how they're shaped by the society they live in
What is collective consciousness?
How people share culture come to think in the same manner due to shared beliefs, ideas & moral attitudes which unify society
What is hegemony?
A coerced acceptance of values, expectations & conditions as determined by the capitalist class
Where do meanings of symbols and language come from?
It depends on both individual interpretations and social context
Difference between social play and social games
Social play - spontaneous and free with minimal social rules and limited stakes
Social game - more strict sets of rules and greater stakes
What are the primary ways we interact with each other and play a critical role in formation of identity?
Games, Play & Language
What is the difference between "I" and "me"
I- individualistic self
Me - social self
What is the Thomas Theorem?
The theory that interpretation of a situation affects the response to that situation
External vs Internal Validity
External - the extent to which the results can be generalized to the public
Internal - the extent to which the outcome variable is due to the intervention
What is impression management?
Individual changes their response to match expectation
What is the Hawthorne effect?
Individuals change their response because they know they're being studied