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Define nativism

The view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn

1

Who argued for nativism? 1 person

Plato

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Define philosophical empiricism

The view that all knowledge is acquired through experience

3

Who had the empiricism view? (5 people)

Aristotle
Thomas Hobbes
Locke
Hume
Mill

4

Where did most of the important psychology questions come from? (3 things)

Observation, intuition and speculation

5

What is dualism?

It is a view of the body as a physical entity and the view of the mind as a spirit or non physical entity.

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Who argued for dualism or interactionism? 1 person

René Descartes

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What is the problem with dualism?

The problem was the inadequate explanation of how behaviours were made. Ex. How does the mind tell the body to dodge or why does the mind say ouch when the body is harmed?

8

What were the early explanation that Rene Descartes used to explain dualism?

He suggested that the pineal gland(near the bottom of the brain) helps the mind influence the body

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What fundamental question has puzzled philosophers for millennia?

How they were able to prove their views or theories were correct

10

Did most scientists accept dualism? If not, what did they accept?

No. Most of the scientists believed in materialism

11

Who argued against Rene’s dualism and with which view?

Gilbert Ryle argued against dualism and preferred materialism

12

What did Thomas Hobbes argue for? (3 things)

Materialism
Monism
Empiricism

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Define materialism

Position that since nothing exists other than matter and energy. The concept of soul is meaningless

14

Define monism

A theory or doctrine that denies the existence of duality. Ex. Materialism

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Who shared the view that “the mind is what the brain does” (2 people)

Thomas Hobbes
Frank Joseph Gall

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Define phrenology

A defunct(not working) theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics are located in specific region of the brain

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Who was appalled by Gall’s phrenology and did experiments on animals’ brains involving brain and mind?

Marie Jean Pierre Flourens

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Who argued for phrenology? 1 person

Frank Joseph Gall

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Who demonstrated the mind-brain connection AND found the Broca’s area?

Paul Broca

20

How did work involving patients with brain damage help demonstrate the mind-brain connection?

The workers could see the difference in behaviour or mental capabilities between the patients with brain damage and people with no brain damage.

21

Define physiology

The study of biological processes, especially in the human body

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Who worked in the field of physiology?(3 people)

Muller
Helmholtz
Fechner

23

Who is the father of psychology?

Wilhelm Wundt

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Who conducted/measured the speed of responses?

Helmholtz

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What were the results of helmholtz’s experiment?

He found that reactions between his participants had different speed and later on, proved that mental events were not instantaneous

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What was the useful application of helmholtz’s results?

• He disproved that mental events were instantaneous
• He could use reaction time to study the mind and brain

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Who taught the first course in physiological psychology?

Wilhelm Wundt

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What did Wilhelm Wundt do? (4 things)

•Established first independent psychology lab 1879
• establishes first psychology journal 1881
• studied consciousness
• created structuralism

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Define consciousness

A person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind