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Flashcards in Properties of Breastmilk Deck (27)
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1

What are the main properties of breastmilk?

- Species specific
- Adapted to meet nutritional and anti-infective requirements of baby
- A 'living' food - 'white blood'
- Adapts throughout BF continuum

2

How is breastmilk adapted for a baby that is preterm?

Contains more energy, lipids and proteins

3

Give some factors that influence breastmilk composition

- Stage of lactation
- Gestational age
- Stage of feeding (beginning or end)
- Baby's demand
- Degree of fullness/emptiness of breasts
- Variation of breastmilk maturation during lactogenesis

4

How does the breastmilk adapt if the baby is ill?

Cells in mother can detect the illness and produce antibodies to transfer in breastmilk

5

What is colostrum?

- Lower in volume
- Anti-infective and anti-viral properties
- Rich in protein and minerals
- Lower in carbohydrates and fat
- Important for priming and protecting baby's gut
- Has a laxative effect

6

Why is colostrum lower in volume?

Allows baby to learn how to suck and swallow while breathing

7

Why does colostrum have a laxative effect

Increases bowel movements because meconium contains many RBC so body needs to get rid of it as digested products of RBC can cause jaundice

8

What is the average volume of milk?

- Colostrum = 7-14ml/ feed (37ml in first 24 hours)
- By day 5 = 500ml/24 hours
- By 6 months = 800ml/24 hours

9

How much weight should newborns be putting on per day?

10g/kg

10

What is the nutritional value of breastmilk?

- BF is interactive and helps infant determine composition of feed
- 80% water
- Contains fat, lactose, protein, vitamins and micronutrients

11

Describe the fat content in breastmilk

- Main source of energy
- Provides half of breastmilk calories
- Most variable component
- 98-99% triglycerides
- Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

12

Describe the fat gradient

- Low fat at beginning of feed to quench thirst
- More fat at end of feed to satisfy hunger

13

Describe the carbohydrate content of breastmilk

- Lactose
- Oligosaccharides
- Galactose
- Fructose

14

Describe lactose

- Accounts for majority of carbohydrates
- Affected by maternal diet
- Enhances calcium absorption
- Metabolises readily into galactose and glucose
- Requires lactase to be converted

15

What are the 2 main types of protein in breastmilk?

Whey and casein

16

Describe the quantities of whey and casein proteins

- Casein low in early lactation, then rapidly increases
- Whey highest in early lactation, then rapidly falls
- Ratio whey:casein
Early lactation = 90:10
Mature milk = 60:40
Late lactation = 50:50

17

Describe whey proteins

- Form soft curds
- Quickly digested
- Continuous nutrient flow
- Play important role in immunological defence
- Examples: Serum albumin, Lactoferrin, Lysozyme

18

Describe casein proteins

- Form a tough, less digestible curd
- Requires high energy expenditure for incomplete digestion

19

Describe the vitamins and micronutrients in breastmilk

- Vary with maternal diet
- Vitamins A and E
- Vitamin K in small amounts
- Little vitamin D
- Small amount of iron
- Lactoferrin

20

Why does vitamin K content increase?

Rises at lactation matures and baby's gut is colonised with bacteria

21

What is lactoferrin?

Iron transfer factor - absorbed into blood and is an anti-infective (sits in gut and 'catches bugs')

22

What are the anti-infective properties in breastmilk?

- Healing properties (sticky eyes)
- Bifidus factor
- Transfer factors (e.g. lactoferrin)
- WBC
- Viral fragments
- Oligosaccharides
- Anti-inflammatory molecules
- Influence on gut pH

23

Describe the layers of protection that breastmilk provides

- Top tier; secretory antibodies
- Fatty acids and lactoferrin
- Oligosaccharides

24

Describe immunoglobulins

- Antibodies from previous maternal infections
- slgA (secretory immunoglobulin A) - coats and lines the digestive tract
- Entro-mammary and broncho-mammary pathways

25

What does breastmilk contain that formula doesn't?

- Enzymes
- Growth factors
- Anti-parasites
- Anti-viruses
- Hormones
- Antibodies

26

What do both breastmilk and formula contain?

- Water
- Protein
- Carbohydrates
- Fat
- Vitamins and minerals

27

Describe milk marketing

- Food Standards Agency monitors formula
- If additives are found to be beneficial, they have to be added to all formula
- No milk that is better than another
- Milk companies adapt statistics to make them look better