Flashcards in Prevention, Control, & Eradication Deck (21)
What is primary prevention?
prevention aimed at maintaining a healthy population
- preventing the occurrence of a disease
What are some examples of primary prevention?
Border security, meat inspection/hygiene
Removing specified risk material from food/feed
What is secondary prevention?
Attempts to minimize damage after dz has occurred
What are some examples of secondary prevention?
Screening for breast or prostate cancer
Physical examinations with annual vaccination of pets and annual blood work in geriatric pets
In a population: test and slaughter and or stamping out methods
When does tertiary prevention become necessary?
After primary and secondary prevention has failed
T/F: Tertiary prevention applies mostly to he individual and consists of rehabilitation
What is the goal of tertiary prevention?
To reduce complications, slow down the progression, and reduce the severity of the symptoms. To maintain the best quality of life
What category of prevention would management of a diabetic cat fall under?
Steps taken to reduce a disease problem to a tolerable level and maintain it at that level is considered ______. This is similar to _________ prevention.
Similar to secondary prevention
What is the final step in dz control efforts?
It consists of complete elimination of the dz-producing agent from a defined geographic location.
What is total eradication, and what are two examples of pathogens that have been totally eradicated?
Disease agent has been completely removed from the area of concern
Smallpox and Rinderpest
What is practical eradication?
Elimination of organisms from the reservoirs of importance to humans or their domestic animals
What is a pathogen that has been "practically eradicated" in the US?
reservoirs are not humans or their domestic pets -- raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes
What are the three principles of dz control and eradication?
Reducing contact potential (between infected and susceptible)
Increasing host resistance
What are some (3) methods of reservoir neutralization?
1. Removing infected individuals: Could be via test and slaughter methods or Mass therapy (treating without testing first)
2. Rendering infected individuals non shedders: vaccination
3. Manipulating the environment: Ex. - parasite control and mosquito control (for taenia and WNV)
What are 3 ways to reduce contact potential?
1. Isolation or tx of cases: this reduces probability of contact with susceptible animals and facilitates tx ****not ideal when non symptomatic animals are shedding
2. Quarantine of possible infected
3. Population control and reduction: Ex - leash laws in the US to control rabies and reduce fecal contamination and Rabies control - by capturing and euthanizing stray dogs :(
What are 3 ways to increase host resistance?
1. Genetic selection and good welfare
2. Chemoprophylaxis: preventative in nature: mostly antimicrobial in humans
What are the 5 National dz control components?
1. Animal health law and regulations
2. Disease control management agency
3. Veterinary/inspection services
4. laboratory services
5. Surveillance, information, education, communication and training
What are the three levels of animal health law and regulation?
National: Animal health act and animal quarantine laws
State: states have their own regulations
What is the agreement that nations must sign when they join the WTO?
Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures agreement
Gives WTO member nations the right to apply measures to protect human, animal. and plant life and health (based on science, not disguised barriers to trade)