Prelim unit one Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prelim unit one Deck (33)
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1

Animal cell

Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Cell membrane
Mitochondria
Ribosome

2

Plant cell

Cell wall
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Chloroplast
Vacuole
Ribosome
Mitochondria
Nucleus

3

Fungal cell

Cell wall
Cell membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria
Ribosome
Vacuole

4

Bacterial

Nucleoid
Plasmid
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Ribosome

5

Nucleus

Controls all cell activity

6

Plasmid

Contains genetic material

7

Cell membrane

Controls entry and exit of materials
Selectively permeable

8

Cytoplasm

Site of most chemical reactions
Fermentation

9

Cell wall

Maintains cell structure

10

Chloroplast

Sure of photosynthesis

11

Vacuole

Sugar storage

12

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of cell
Site of aerobic respiration

13

Ribosome

Site of protein synthesis

14

Diffusion

Passive
Molecules moving down a concentration gradient

15

Osmosis

Passive
WATER molecules moving down a concentration gradient

16

Active transport

Requires energy
Molecules moving up a concentration gradient

17

Animal cell in water

High water concentration=bursts
Lower water concentration=cell shrinks

18

Plant cells in water

Higher water concentration=becomes turgid
Lower water concentration=becomes plasmolysed vacuole shrinks

19

What are Chromosomes made up of

Genes

20

Bases

Adenine=thymine
Guanine=cytosine
Complementary bases
Makes up genetic code to

21

mRNA

MOLECULE that carries copy of genetic code from nucleus to ribosome where protein is assembled using amino acid

22

DNA

Carries genetic information
MOLECULE

23

Protein shape

Shape comes from amino acid sequence
Protein shape effects their function

24

Protein functions

Structural
Enzymes
Hormones
Antibodies
Receptors

25

Enzymes function

Biological catalysts
Speed up chemical reactions

26

Active sites

Enzyme molecules bind to substrate molecule forming enzyme substrate complex

27

Effects on enzyme reactions

Change in shape
Change of temperature
Ph level

28

Genetic information

All cell activity depends on it
Can be transferred artificially using genetic engineering

29

Genetic engineering

Used to make proteins
Enzymes used to remove gene required, cut plasmid and seal gene into plasmid

30

Genetic engineering steps

Removing section of DNA containing gene required
Inserting gene into extracted plasmid
Inserting modified plasmid into cell