Flashcards in PREGNANCY IN PIGS, FARROWING, INVOLUTION Deck (30)
Early pregnancy - fertilization
Pronucleus formation and syngamie
Early pregnancy - cleavage
2 cell embryo to morula
Early pregnancy - Early embryonic development
Intrauterine migration and spacing
Early pregnancy - Implantation
After zygote stage, embryos enter into several mitotic divisions
- IV cell enter fallopian tube
- 50-60 hours after fertilization the 4 or 8 cell go to the tip of the uterine horn
INTRAUTERINE MIGRATION AND SPACING
- After hatching blastocysts provides the first contact between conceptus and maternal uterine epithelium.
- Intrauterine migration and equidistant spacing is essential to embryonic survival.
- Embryos are near to the tip of the uterine horn till day 6 and start migrate thereafter.
- Migration and spacing continue until day 12.
IMPLANTATION / PLACENTATION
- Implantation of the conceptus is non-invasive
- Implantation is regulated by progesterone and estrogen secreted by the ovary or conceptus, respectively.
- Initial attachment of the embryo to the epithelial cells of the uterus depends on specific adhesion molecules (integrin, selectin).
- Expression of oligosaccharide ligands permits more stable adhesion and successful attachment of the trophoblast to the endometrium
- Extremely rapid process
- 2 mm ø spherical feature on d 10, ~10 mm long tubular feature on d 11-12.
- 2-3 h later elongation is beginning by 30 to 40 mm/h! attaining the length 20 to 30 cm filamentous form.
o Growing of embryo is 30-40 mm per hour, very rapid
Further differentiation of a growing fetus
- After they have attached to the epithel layer in the uterus, further differentiation starts
- From trophoblast cells?
- Ectoderm – skin, hair, mammary gland, nervous system
- Mesoderm – heart, blood vessels, kidneys, bones, muscles, reproductive (urogenital) organs, connective tissue, adipose tissue
- Endoderm – liver, pancreas, epithel layer of gastrointestinal organs, repspiratory system
BREEDING AT THE PIG FARM - tasks
- Pregnancy diagnosis
- Repeated fertilization
- No pigs should disappear
o Meaning that we have no control over what a specific pig does
o Can chip the animal to keep better control over the pigs
- Visual and endocrine methods
o simply looking at the pig – behaviour
o ultrasound check – has diagnostic value, most important and accurate
o maternal or embryonal hormone production
o Morula, BLASTOCYST – E2 (estradiol/estrogen) production
o P4 (progesterone) – high cc in the time of next follicular phase – not pregnancy specific
o 20 to 100 % embryonic mortality till blastocyst stage
o Practical importance of preg check from attachment
- Exactly registered AI time
o Without knowng this it is difficult to confirm pregnancy
Economic principals of pregnancy check
- Reduce false diagnosis – reliability
- Practical and simple method needed
- Immediate result
- Identify the return pigs (max. 1 more AI)
- „Non return” sows – US at d 28-30 (identify the „silent” sows) Real Time US
- Till US check in AI cage
- Palpation – uterine artery ???????
- Endocrine diagnosis – estron-szulphate test from d 24-26, Progesterone – often false (many CL) – need of lab. background
- Hystological sample from vagina – thickness of epithel layer??????
- Many fetuses, short pregnancy – diffuse placenta ensures proper environment
- Mainly „quantity” gain from mid term
- Huge maternal feed demand – proper and phase dependant sow feed
- Groupr housing & free range
- 4 to 7 d before expected term filling the farrowing unit – most expensive building at the pig farm
- „All in” – after previous weaning, „all out”, cleaning, waiting
- Sow should be cleaned before getting here
- In case of straw – preparing nest
- Light digestable feed in small dosages, WATER supply
- Daily check of manure – metabolic problem
Traditional pig farm vs modern pig farm
- Labour management aspects (avoiding „week-end” farrowing, same time farrowing)
- Max 2 to 3 d before expected term
- PGF2α 10-15 mg im. – farrowing 24 h later, with oxytocin more precise but risky
PHASES OF FARROWING
1ST PHASE – PREPARATION
- Milk droplets in the teats
- Eat less, feeding more times
- Hard abdominal wall, lateral position, standing up, laying down, myometral & abdinal wall contractions
- Slightly reduced body temperature
- Cervical opening, reddening, amnionic fluid – farrowing in 15 min
PHASES OF FARROWING 2ND PHASE – BIRTH
- Frequent contractions (amnionic fluid – piglet is coming)
- Piglets are coming from uterine horns alternately in 10 to 30 min – assistance
- Total farrowing 2 to 8 h (modern breeds ↑)
- Piglets get to teats alone or assist them
PHASES OF FARROWING 3RD PHASE – FINAL PHASE
- Birth of placenta in 1 to 5 h
- Lochia – 1 to 2 d
- Beginning of involution
CARING FOR THE NEWBORN PIGLETS
- Aspirated fluid from nasal cavity and mouth if needed and possible
- Desinfection of Ch. Umbilic. (24 h – fall)
- Cholostrum – all piglets, min 10 x 10-20 ml
- Piglet cage heated by infrared lamp
- On d 2 Ferro-daxtrane injection to prevent anaemie, tail shortening
- D 7 to 10 castration(disorders are visible i.e. hernia, abdominal testis), immonocast???
- From d 14 castration in local anesthaesia
- (In adults general anesthaesia)
- From farrowing till cyclic function and fertilizing ability ~ 28-40 days
- Heat – 4 to 5 d after proper weaning
- 4 w suckling at least for proper involution
- Lactation (synthesis & secretion of milk) against ovarian activity
- Myometral contractions – exit of placenta, lochia (tissue residua + fluid), vessels under compression, rapid reduction of length and diameter, ocytocin → contraction↑
- Gate for pathogens – ~ physiological period
- Uterine Tract Infection (UTI) – pathological feature of the previous phenomen
Problems in the farrowing unit - Mainly at primiparous sows – gilts
- Weak contraction – oxytocin – after 7-8 piglets
- 30-40 min between 2 piglets, jam at the bifurcation or cervix?
- Assist by hand? Cesaerian section?
- Weight of piglets? Vitality? 750-800 g...
- Danger of hypothermy – cholostrum
- Agression of sow (primiparous)
- More piglets than teats – nursing
- Agalactia – rarely after normal farrowing
- MMA (PPDS), mainly mastitis + agalactia prolonged farrowing (primiparous), dead fetuses. Pregnant sow feed → suckling feed (metabolic adjust, toxins, less dry material) E.coli – immediate Ab treatment
Problems in the farrowing unit -Dead newborns, splayleg, mumification stillbirth
- Infertility – biggest economic lost
- Parvovirus infection – SMEDI
- Other pathogens - Lep.pomona, L.hyos, E.coli, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, ASF Fusarium (T2 toxin) & Aspergillus fungi
- Abortus – sample to authorized lab
- PRRS – Arteriviridae („Lelystad” ), 3rd trimester - transplacental infection
- Normal & splayleg, weak, dead piglets, mummies. Low fertilizitaion rate, many returns. (Respiratoric symptoms in weaned piglets & fattening pigs)
- Prevention, farm level hygiene, national program
Prolapsus – vagina, cervix, uterus – unique case/more cases?
Family ♀, strain ♂ control – selection
Acute intervention vs slaughtering
Always farm specific treatment
WHAT CAN WE DO?
- Herd diagnosis, herd health management
- Nearly negligible individual therapy
- Genetic problem???
- Feed control of all charges
2 interesting methods in mid size farms...
- Intermittent suckling from w 3 to 4. Piglests taken away every day for some hs.
- Kinder garden: from w 3 farrowing cages are openly connected
- Both methods result in longer suckling period, much better involution etc.