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What do true teachers defend their students against?

The teachers own influence


What 3 things demonstrate lack of formal teacher training by counselors?

Study no methods
Rarely observed
Knowledge of educ. Psych is minimal or nonexistent


What type of teacher continues to dominate teaching?

the expert who delivers “finished” knowledge


When teaching, what feels safer to the instructor?
What feels less comfortable

Lecturing and pronouncing

case analysis, demonstration, or discussion.


What is Freire’s (1994) metaphor for instructor-centered teaching?

knowledge is the domain of the few, who pass it on to the many.


What model has been increasingly challenged as ineffective?

teacher-as-expert and student-as-receiver


What is the author’s definition of teaching?

setting up of conditions for the learner to know, through a cycling and recycling of experience, reflection, and abstract conceptualization.


What notions do the authors favor in teaching?

social construction of knowledge,
inclusive, dialogical program practice,
faculty are learners-among-learners.


What is Robert Kegan’s (1998) notion of over-the-shoulder inquiry?

students puzzle together over problems that emerge during the many discourses of their education, discourses that are often instigated by the educator.


“midwife” teachers, to use Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, and Tarule’s (1986)

teachers who assist students in giving birth to their own ideas.


What are central themes in constructivist thinking?

Doubt and humility