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1

define sensation

conscious awareness of stimuli received by sensory receptors

2

general senses

distributed over large parts of the body. Receptor generates an action potential called a generator potential that then travels to the brain - this is called a primary receptor

3

special senses

smell, taste, sight, hearing, balance. Receptor produces a receptor potential and the receptor then releases a neurotransmitter that binds to receptors on the membrane of a neuron which then travels to the brain - this is called a secondary receptor

4

list the 5 types of general sensory receptors

touch, pressure, proprioception, temperature, pain

5

list the 8 major types of sensory nerve endings

free nerve endings, Merkel disks, hair follicle receptors, Pacinan corpuscle, Messiner corpuscle, Ruffini end organs, muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organ

6

describe accommodation or adaptation

decreased sensitivity to a continued stimuli
-slowly adapting receptors: tonic
-rapidly adapting receptors: phasic

7

location of the primary somatic sensory cortex

postcentral gyrus

8

location of the taste area

inferior surface of the frontal lobe

9

location of the olfactory cortex

inferior surface of frontal lobe

10

location of the primary auditory cortex

superior part of the temporal lobe

11

location of the visual cortex

occipital lobe

12

location of the somatic sensory

posterior to primary somatic sensory cortex

13

location of the visual association

anterior to visual cortex

14

referred pain

sensation in 1 region of body that is not source of stimulus

15

phantom pain

occurs when people have an appendage amputated or structure removed: example arm or leg

16

locations of the motor areas of the cerebral cortex

-upper motor neurons: directly or through interneurons connect to lower
-lower motor neurons: axons leave the CNS, extend through PNS to the skeletal muscles. Cell bodies in anterior horns of spinal cord and in cranial nerve nuclei of brainstem

17

list the three parts of the cerebellum

precentral gyrus
premotor area
prefrontal area

18

precentral gyrus

(primary motor cortex, primary motor area), 30% of upper motor neurons. another 30% in premotor area, rest in somatic sensory cortex

19

premotor area

anterior to primary motor cortex. most functions organized before initiation

20

prefrontal area

motivation, foresight to plan and initiate movements, emotional behavior, mood

21

list the three types of memory

sensory, short-term, and long-term

22

sensory memory

very short term retention of sensory input

23

short-term memory

information retained for few seconds to minutes

24

long-term memory

(declarative or explicit)
-retention of facts
-accessed by hippocampus -actual memory
(procedural)
-long-term memory: development of skills such as riding a bicycles

25

affects of aging on the nervous system

-gradual decline in sensory and motor function
-reflexes slow
-size and weight of brain decrease
-decreased short-term memory in most people
-long-term memory unaffected or improved
-changes in sleep patterns

26

somatic nervous system

-skeletal muscle
-conscious and unconscious movement
-skeletal muscle contracts
-1 synapse
-acetylocholine
-receptor molecules: nicotinic

27

autonomic nervous system

-smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
-unconscious regulation
-target tissues stimulated or inhibited
-2 synapses
-receptor molecules: varies with synapse and neurotransmitters

28

parasympathetic division

-brainstem and lateral parts of spinal cord gray matter
-cranial nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves
-terminal ganglia near or 1 effector organ
-less divergence

29

sympathetic division

-lateral horns of the spinal cord gray matter
-spinal nerves, sympathetic nerves, and splanchnic nerves
-sympathetic chain ganglia along spinal cord for spinal and sympathetic nerves
-much divergence

30

describe the nervous system

consists of nerve plexuses within a wall of digestive tract