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OCR A-Level Chemistry Salters B > Polymers and Life > Flashcards

Flashcards in Polymers and Life Deck (21)
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1

What is a phenol group

A benzene ring with an -OH attached

2

Carbonate reaction with carboxylic acids

Acid-base reaction in which the CO2- is the base. H+ is the acid and carbon dioxide is formed

3

Phenol and alcohol reaction with carbonate

Do not have a large enough concentration of H+ ions to make carbon dioxide so the reaction will not fizz

4

Reaction which breaks down an ester

Hydrolysis, the two types are acid and alkali

5

Naming esters

The ending -oate comes from the parent acid which is attached to the carbon in the ester linkage, the ending -yl comes from the other substance used which is attached to the oxygen in the ester linkage

6

Amine function groups and properties

-NH2 group
-Lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen allows amines to act as bases

7

Amides functional group

-CONH-
-Formed by reacting an amine with either a carboxylic acid or a acyl chloride

8

Acid hydrolysis

The ester linkage breaks down and the NH2 group becomes NH3+

9

Alkaline hydrolysis

The ester linkage breaks down and the COOH group becomes COO-

10

Zwitterions

A molecule which contains both negatively and positively charge groups. They are often used in buffer solutions

11

Chiral centres and optical isomers

A chiral centre is a carbon atom with four different groups bonded to it.

Optical isomers are molecules with the same chemical structure, but they are mirror images of themselves around the chiral centre.

This means they are non-superimposable

12

Enantiomers

The different optical isomers are called enantiomers

13

The three levels of protein structure

Primary - the order of the amino acids

Secondary - the coiling of the primary structure to form a helix or a pleated sheet

Tertiary - the folding of the secondary structure

14

Bonds in the tertiary structure

Instantaneous dipole-induced dipole bonds between non-polar side chains

Hydrogen bonds between between the peptide links

Ionic bonds between ionisable side chains

Covalent bonds between when -SH groups oxidise to -S-S- groups

15

What are enzymes

High specific catalysts which are sensitive to pH and temperature and are subject to competitive inhibition

16

What are inhibitors

Molecules which fit into the active site of an enzyme but cannot be catalysed

17

What is a pharmacophore

The part of a molecule which gives it a pharmaceutical abilities

18

What is a nucleotide

A sugar, phosphate, and a base bonded together

19

What are the four bases and which bonds with which

Cytosine bonds with Guanine via three hydrogen bonds

Adenine bonds with Thymine via two hydrogen bonds

20

Transcription

-A section of the DNA unzips
-RNA nucleotides join together and create a complimentary strand to the unzipped DNA
-The mRNA strand leaves the DNA
-The DNA zips back up

21

Translation

-mRNA from transcription enters the ribosomes
-tRNA joins to the RNA via the anti-codon
-The tRNA joins different amino acids together creating a protein chain