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Flashcards in PLC Deck (77)
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1

How many mm of rainfall fell in 2 hours onto Boscastle?

60mm

2

How much did insurance companies pay out for the Boscastle flood?

20 Million

3

What percentage of Boscastle's income is derived from tourism?

90-95%

4

How many business premises were destroyed in Boscastle?

25

5

How many footbridges were washed away in Boscastle?

4

6

How many people were rescued in Boscastle? What was significant about the rescue operation?

100.
Largest rescue in peacetime Britain.

7

What was the cost of the new flood defenses installed at Boscastle in 2006?

£4.5 Million

8

Fill in the figures:
_____Degrees north/south of the equator
_____Metres ocean depth
_____Ocean temperature
_____MPH winds

15
60
27
74

9

What speed did winds reach in Cyclone Nargis?

135mph

10

How high was the storm surge produced by Cyclone Nargis?

7.6 Metres

11

How far inland did floods reach on the Irrawady Delta?

40-50km

12

What was the cost of damage caused by Nargis?
How much did the US donate?

$4 Billion.
$41 Million.

13

How many deaths were caused by Nargis?
How many in the town of Labutta?

138,000.
80,000.

14

What category cyclone was Nargis?

Category 4

15

What local industry was decimated by Nargis?

Fishing

16

For how many days did the military government in Burma (Cyclone Nargis) prohibit foreign aid for? Why?

6 days because they didn't want foreign intervention in Burma.

17

Mt Etna's eruption also produced several earthquakes - what magnitude did these reach?

4.3 (on the Richter Scale)

18

Give the name of the plate boundaries that formed Mt Etna -what type of boundary is it and how do they behave?

The African and the Ionian Microplate both subduct below the Eurasian plate, even though they are all continental plates. It is therefore a destructive plate boundary.

19

How many homes in Santa Venerina were damaged?

Over 100

20

MT ETNA
How did authorities offer temporary residence to the displaced?

They took control of holiday homes and offered them as accommodation.

21

For how many days was the airport in Catania closed for?

4 days.
The implications of volcanic ash on aviation.

22

MT ETNA
How high was magma spurted into the air?
From how many vents?
Where did ash fall? How far south could it be seen?

100 meters.
2 vents.
The city of Catania. As far south as Libya.

23

Give the name of the plate boundaries that formed Nevada Del Ruiz -what type of boundary is it and how do they behave?

The oceanic Nazca plate subducts below the continental South American plate at a destructive plate boundary.

24

What type of volcanoes are Mt Etna and Nevada Del Ruiz?

Stratovolcanoes - steep sides formed because viscous magma cools quickly.

25

Which Colombian town did the Red Cross order an evacuation of?

Armero

26

How much did the Nevada Del Ruiz eruption cost the Colombian government? What percentage of their GDP was this?

$7.7 Billion.
20%.

27

Why was the Nevada Del Ruiz not predicted?
Why did the Colombian government not prepare?

Scientists did not know precisely when the eruption would occur, and the authorities would not take costly preventative measures without clear warnings of imminent danger. Because the volcano's last substantial eruption occurred 140 years ago, it was also hard for many to accept the danger the volcano presented.

28

How many people were killed when the town of Chinchina was submerged by a lahar?

1927

29

Nevada Del Ruiz
What speed did Lahars travel at?

30MPH.

30

Why was it difficult for rescuers to reach the town of Armero?
Why was it difficult to treat people?

Hot Lahars has destroyed infrastructure.
Armero's hospital was destroyed.