Flashcards in Plato Deck (31)
The internal and real idea of something (e.g. beauty)
Form of the Good-definition
The highest/greatest form
A rationalist is someone who believes that human reason is the primary source of all knowledge of the world.
An empiricist is someone who believes that the primary source of all knowledge derives from what the senses tell us.
The primary source of all knowledge od the world is revealed to humanity by a God through encounter
the innate ideal of object
A action instance of a 'horse' reflecting from the world of the forms
An argument based on senses and experiences
The Analogy of the Cave story
1. A group of adults who had lived in a cave since birth. They had there legs and necks tied and so they could not move. These 'prisoners' faced a blank wall.
2. Behind these people was a walk way, where other people would walk across carrying objects.
3. There was a fire which acted like the sun, as the people carried the objects across it made shadows on the wall that the prisoners where facing.
4. one day on of the passers by spoke and it echoed around the cave. No-one thought to turn around, except one man. he was released, and had clear vision.
5. From outside the cave he could see not just shadows but reflection too. some of the object reflections were I the water. he could also see the sun and stars
6. If any other prisoners wanted to see this then they would need to question how the objects move.
7. The man returned to the cave to tell his fellow prisoners but they could not go outside the cave because they did not question the moving objects and accepted what there 5 senses tell them.
What does the Cave represent?
The world that we live in, where most people are trapped in the world of senses. A world of decay and change.
What do the Prisoners represent?
Ordinary people who rely on what there 5 senses tell them. ( Empiricist)
What do the Shadows represent?
Material objects, experienced by the senses. The phenomena the instances or reflections of the forms. A poor reflection of something more perfect.
What does the Prisoner whose set free represent?
The philosopher- the rationalist who relies on reason to understand the real world.
What does the Journey out of the Cave represent?
The philosophers journey to enlightenment from the material world
What does the World outside the Cave represent?
The world of the forms, the real world, which is eternal and immutable. Everlasting- has no beginning or end
What does the Sun represent?
The highest form, the form of the good, on which everything ultimately depends.
What does the Prisoners return represent?
The philosophers trying to convince others of the real world only known through reason.
STRENGHTS of the analogy of the cave
~uses the concept that everyone can understand
~people are derived by the 5 senses
~ it is universal
WEEKNESS'S of the analogy of the cave
~ ideas of what is beautiful have changed
the world of the forms
the ideal of something, reality, eternal, a concept ( a form) of something i.e. a horse, the form of the good. source of reality. gives us thought and visibility and knowledge of the power of the mind.
the material world
appearance, decay and change, a idea of something (phenomena/ particular). the sun in the analogy, source- growth and light, viability of objects sense, power of the eye, visible objects.
...perfect version of things.
The form of a rose...
... is a ideal rose.
Forms of the universe...
...things in the physical world are particulars
... imperfect copies in the physical world.
The real world
~knowledge ~immutable ~perfect ~ timeless ~eternal ~reason ~invisible
The world of appearance
~reflection ~imperfect ~change ~decay ~senses ~opinion
The form of the good-explanation
Plato believes there is a hierarchy of forms. The form of the good is the highest of the forms. without it we cannot understand the other forms. the ideal.