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Flashcards in Pkarmacology Ch10 Deck (66)
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What is the main reason for the administration of antipsychotics?

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders


What does the clinical course of schizophrenia usually involve?

It usually involves acute exasperation with intervals of semiremission.


What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

Positive symptoms related to behavior, thought, and speech ( aggitation, delusions, hallucinations, tangential speech patterns)


What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Social withdrawal, lack of emotion,lack of energy ( anergia), flattened affect, decreased motivation, decreased pleasure in activities.


What are the goals of psychopharmacological treatment for schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders?

Suppressing acute episodes
Preventing acute reference
Maintaining the highest level of functioning


What drugs control mainly the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

First generation(conventional) antipsychotic meds
Reserved for clients who use them successful and can tolerate adverse effects.
Or for clients who are particularly violent or aggressive


Second generation (atypical) antipsychotic meds are the choice of drug for clients who.....

For clients receiving initial treatment and for treating breakthrough episodes in clients on conventional meds, because they are more effective with fewer adverse effects.


Advantages of atypical antipsychotic drugs include....

Relief of both the positive & negative symptoms of the disease.
Decrease in affective manifestations ( depression, anxiety)& suicidal behaviors.
Improvement of neurocognitive deficits such as poor memory.
Fewer extrapyramidal side effects including TD because of less dopamine blockade.
Fewer anticholinergic adverse effects because most atypical antipsychotics, with the exception of clozapine, cause little or no blockade of cholinergic receptors.
Less relapse


What is the prototype drug of 1st generation ( conventional) antipsychotics?

chlorpromazine ( Thorazine)- low potency


What are other drugs in the 1st generation ( conventional) antipsychotic class of drugs?

haloperidol ( Haldol)- low potency
fluphenazine- high potency
thiothixene (Navane)- high potency
perphenazine- medium potency


What is the expected pharmacological action of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotic drugs?

Blocks dopamine (D2), acetylcholine, histamine, & norepinephrine ( NE) receptors in the brain and periphery.
Inhibition of psychotic manifestations, believed to be a result of D2 blockade in the brain.


What are the therapeutic uses of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotics?

Tx of acute & chronic psychotic disorders
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders
Bipolar disorders( primarily manic phase)
Tourette's syndrome
Prevention of nausea/ vomiting thru blockade of dopamine in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the medulla.


What are the adverse effects/EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SIDE EFFECTSof 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotics?

Acute dysphonia/ the client experiences severe spasms of tongue, neck, face or back. This is a crisis situation, which requires rapid tx.

Monitor for acute dystopia between 5hr- 5 days after administration of 1st dose. Treat w/ anticholinergic agents such as benztropine or diphenhydramine. Use oral doses for less acute effects and IM OR IV doses for serious effects.


What are adverse/ extrapyramidal side effects of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotic drugs?

Parkinsonism/ clinical findings include bradykinesia, rigidity, shuffling gait, drooling and tremors.

Observe for Parkinsonism within 1 month of initiation of therapy.
Treat w/ benxtropine, diphenhydramine or amantadine.discontinue these meds to determine if they are still needed. If manifestations return, administer atypical antipsychotic as prescribed.


What are adverse extrapyramidal side effects of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotic drugs?

Akathisia/ the client is unable to stand still or sit, and is continually pacing or agitated.

Observe 4 akathisia within 2 months of initiation of tx.
Manage effects with beta-blocker, benzodiazepines, or anticholinergic meds.


What are adverse/ extrapyramidal side effects of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotics?

Tardive dyskinesia TD/manifestations include involuntary movements of the tongue and face such as lip smacking, which cause speech and/ or eating disturbances. TD may also include involuntary movements of arms, legs or trunk.
TD is a late EPS that may occur months to yrs after the start of therapy, and may improve following med change and be permanent
Administer lowest possible dosage to control manifestations
Evaluate client after 12 months of therapy, then Q3 months.
If indications of TD appear, dosage should be lowered or the client should be switched to an atypical agent.


What are other adverse/extrapyramidal symptoms of 1st generation ( conventional) antipsychotics?

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome/ manifestations include sudden high grade fever, blood pressure fluctuations, dysrhythmias, muscle rigidity, and change in level of consciousness developing into a coma.

Stop antipsychotic meds/ monitor vital signs/ apply cooling blankets/ administer antipyretics/increase fluid intake/administer diazepam(Valium) to control anxiety/administer dantrolene (Dantrium) to induce muscle relaxation.
Wait 2 weeks before resuming therapy, consider switching to an atypical agent.


What are adverse/extrapyramidal side effects of 1st generation ( conventional) antipsychotic drugs?

Anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, photophobia, urinary hesitancy/ retention, constipation, tachycardia


What are adverse / extrapyramidal effects of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotics?

Neuroendocrine effects which include gynecomastia ( breast enlargement), galactorrhea, and menstrual irregularities.

Advise clients to observe for manifestations and to notify the provider if these occur.


What are other adverse /extrapyramidal effects of 1st generational (conventional) antipsychotic drugs?

Seizures, skin effects such as sunburn, photosensitivity, and contact dermatitis for handling of the drug.
Orthostatic hypotension, sedation sexual dysfunction.


What is an effect that one must watch out for when taking 1st generation ( conventional) antipsychotics?

Advise clients to observe for indications of infection ( fever, sore throat) and to notify provider if these occur.
If indications of infection appear, obtain the clients baseline WBC.
Med should be discontinued if lab tests indicate infection.


What are possible effects of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotics?

Severe dysrhythmias
Obtain the clients baseline ECG and potassium level prior to tx, and periodically throughout tx.
Avoid concurrent use with other meds that prolong QT intervals.


1st generation (conventional) antipsychotics are contraindicated in clients who........

Contraindicated in clients in a coma, who have severe depression, Parkinson's, prolactin- dependent cancer of the breast, and severe hypotension.
Contraindicated in clients who have dementia
Use cautiously in clients who have glaucoma, paralytic ileus, prostate enlargement, heart disorders, liver or kidney disease and seizure disorders.


What are medication food interactions of 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotic drugs?

Concurrent use of anticholinergic agents with other anticholinergic meds will increase anticholinergic effects./ advise clients to avoid OTC meds w/ anticholinergic agents such as sleeping aids.
Alcohol, opiods, and antihistamines have additive CNS effects.
By activating dopamine receptors, levodopa counteracts the effects of antipsychotic agents./ avoid concurrent use of levodopa and other direct dopamine receptor agonists.


What tool should nurses use to screen for the presence of EPS?

Use the abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS)


What should be administered to control early EPS?

Administer anticholinergics, beta- blockers, and benzodiazepines to control early EPS.


Do antipsychotic meds cause addiction?



When should a pt. feel the effects of (conventional) antipsychotics?

Adivise clients that some therapeutic effects may be noticeable within a few days, but significant improvement may take 2-4 weeks and possibly several months for full effects.


How often should 1st generation (conventional) antipsychotics be administered?

Start administration with twice a day dosing, then switch to daily dosing at bedtime to decrease daytime drowsiness and promote sleep.


What is the prototype drug of atypical (second generation) drugs?

risperidone (Risperdal)