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Flashcards in Physiology of Reproduction Deck (36)
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1

What determines genetic sex?

Chromosomes. XX or XY

2

What determines gonadal sex?

Testes or Ovaries

3

What determines genital sex?

External genitalia which is influenced by hormones

4

What is SRY?

Sex determining region of the Y chromosome

5

What is ovary development dependent upon?

The presence of TWO X chromosomes

6

What happens with the loss of a single X chromosome as in Turner's syndrome?

Loss of one X chromosome results in ovarian dysgenesis but not loss of female ducts or genitalia

7

What occurs in meiosis I?

Chromosomes duplicate and exchange genetic material. Results in haploid numbers of duplicated chromosomes

8

What occurs in meiosis II?

Daughter cells have haploid (1N) chromosomes with the segregation of sex chromosomes providing a mechanism of sexual dimorphism.

9

What does sperm production require?

Reduced temperature

10

Is gonadal sex hormone dependent?

NO. It cannot be as the gonads make the hormones.

11

How is the decision for the progression to female genital structures made?

It occurs when there is no androgens present. Presence of androgens will influence male structure development.

12

What develops into seminiferous tubules, spermatogonia, sertoli cells, leydig cells?

Medulla

13

What develops into secondary sex cords, oogonia, theca cells, granulosa cells?

Cortex

14

What is the function of testosterone in regards to the ductal structures?

Keeps the Wolffian ducts

15

What is the function of AMH in regards to the ductal structures?

Degrades the Mullerian ducts

16

What happens if neither AMH nor testosterone are present?

The Mullerian ducts will remain and the Wolffian ducts will be lost resolution in a female.

17

What is the function of TDF?

It directs the development of the testes

18

What is the function of DHT?

It is more potent of an androgen than testosterone and it causes male genitalia development via androgen receptors.

19

What is the function of 5alpha-reductase?

Converts testosterone to DHT

20

What is the chromosome state of Turner's Syndrome?

XO

21

What are the gonads/ducts/genitals found in Turner's syndrome?

No gonads (only streak)
Mullerian
NO Wolffian
External female genitals

22

What is male pseudohermaphroditism?

Testes are present with external female genitals

23

What is female pseudohermaphroditism?

Ovaries are present with external male genitals

24

What causes male pseudohermaphroditism?

Androgen resistance

25

What causes female pseudohermaphroditism?

Excess androgens

26

What is the chromosome state found in androgen resistance?

XY

27

What are the gonads/ducts/genitals found in androgen resistance (AKA testicular feminization)?

Testes
NO Mullerian
NO Wolffian
External female genitals

28

What is the chromosome state found in 5alpha-hydroxylase deficiency?

XY

29

What are the gonads/ducts/genitals found in 5alpha-hydroxylase deficiency?

Testes
NO Mullerian
Wolffian
External can be male/female or both

30

What is the chromosome state found in Klinefelter's Syndrome?

XXY

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