Physiology of Pancreas Flashcards Preview

SF3-EXAM 4 (CAMELITA) > Physiology of Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology of Pancreas Deck (36)
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31

How does exercise affect GLUT4 transporters?

Exercise activates GLUT4 so that it is translocated to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells, allowing glucose to enter

32

What are the secondary causes of diabetes mellitus?

  • Acromegaly
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Glucagonoma
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Somatostatinoma
  • Aldosteronoma

33

_________ is the first line of treatment for Type II DM.

Metformin

NOTE: It is controversial and is thought to reduce gluconeogenesis in the liver

34

Aside from metformin, which drugs are most oftern prescribed to treat DM Type II?

Biguanides

Sulfonylureas

35

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) symptoms

  • Altered level of consciousness
  • Neurologic signs including: blurred vision, headaches, focal seizures, myoclonic jerking, reversible paralysis
  • Motor abnormalities including flaccidity, depressed reflexes, tremors or fasiciculations
  • Hyperviscosity and increased risk of blood clot formation
  • Dehydration
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain
  • Weakness
  • Low blood pressure with standing

36

Diagnostic criteria for HHS

  • Plasma glucose level >30 mmol/L (>600 mg/dL)
  • Serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg
  • Profound dehydration, up to an average of 9L (and therefore substantial thirst (polydipsia))
  • Serum pH >7.30
  • Bicarbonate >15 mEq/L
  • Small ketonuria (~+ on dipstick) and absent-to-low ketonemia (<3 mmol/L)
  • Some alteration in consciousness
  • BUN > 30 md/dL (increased)
  • Creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL (increased)