Physiology of Pancreas Flashcards Preview

SF3-EXAM 4 (CAMELITA) > Physiology of Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology of Pancreas Deck (36)
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How does exercise affect GLUT4 transporters?

Exercise activates GLUT4 so that it is translocated to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells, allowing glucose to enter


What are the secondary causes of diabetes mellitus?

  • Acromegaly
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Glucagonoma
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Somatostatinoma
  • Aldosteronoma


_________ is the first line of treatment for Type II DM.


NOTE: It is controversial and is thought to reduce gluconeogenesis in the liver


Aside from metformin, which drugs are most oftern prescribed to treat DM Type II?




Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) symptoms

  • Altered level of consciousness
  • Neurologic signs including: blurred vision, headaches, focal seizures, myoclonic jerking, reversible paralysis
  • Motor abnormalities including flaccidity, depressed reflexes, tremors or fasiciculations
  • Hyperviscosity and increased risk of blood clot formation
  • Dehydration
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain
  • Weakness
  • Low blood pressure with standing


Diagnostic criteria for HHS

  • Plasma glucose level >30 mmol/L (>600 mg/dL)
  • Serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg
  • Profound dehydration, up to an average of 9L (and therefore substantial thirst (polydipsia))
  • Serum pH >7.30
  • Bicarbonate >15 mEq/L
  • Small ketonuria (~+ on dipstick) and absent-to-low ketonemia (<3 mmol/L)
  • Some alteration in consciousness
  • BUN > 30 md/dL (increased)
  • Creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL (increased)