Physiology of Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

SF3-EXAM 4 (CAMELITA) > Physiology of Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology of Female Reproductive System Deck (55)
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31

What affect does estrogen have on the ovaries?

Increase function

32

What effect does estrogen have on the uterus?

  • Increased growth
  • Increased endometrial growth

33

What effect does estrogen have on the fallopian tubes?

  • Increases overall growth
  • Increases mucosal growth

34

What effect does estrogen have on the breasts?

  • Increases growth and development
  • Increased fat deposition
  • Increased stromal cell growth
  • Increased ductile system development

NOTE: Estrogen increases growth and progestorone increases secretion

35

What are the phases of the uterine cycle?

Proliferative phase

  • ​Growth of stromal and epithelial cells as well as blood vessels
    • Via estrogen produces

Secretory phase

  • Glands become convoluted, secretion greatly increases, growth continues.
  • Estrogen and progesterone are being produced

 

36

What are the stages of the cervical cycle?

  • Early follicular cycle
    • Low mucus volume and elasticity, high viscosity
  • Late follicular phase
    • Increased mucus volume and elasticity, decreased viscosity
  • Luteal phase
    • Similar to that of the early follicular phase
    • Progesterone blocks the activity of estrogen

37

What are the two kinds of secretion of the cervix?

Surface mucus cells

  • Make a really thick mucus
  • Prevents things from goin gin and out

Endometrial glands

  • Makes a thin high protein secretion
    • High protein leds to elasticity
    • Allows spermatozoa to go in

NOTE: Estrogen stimulates cervical gland secretion

38

Follicular phase in ovary= __________ phase in uterus.

Proliferative

39

Luteal phase in ovary= __________ phase in uterus.

Secretory phase

40

What are the phases of the vaginal cycle?

Early follicular

  • Predominenately basophilic cells
  • Decreased volume; increased viscosity

Late follicular

  • Predominately cornified cells
  • Increased volume, decreased viscocity

Luteal

  • Decreased cornified cells, increased polymorphonuclear neutrophils 
  • Decreased volume, increased viscocity

41

What are the phases of the adult menstrual cycle?

Follicular phase

  • Post-mentrual, proliferative, estrogenic
  • Follicular maturation
  • Proliferative endometrium

Luteal phase

  • Premenstrual, secretory, progestational
  • Corpus Luteum Activity
  • Secretory endometrium

42

Rise in basal body temperature is induced by _______.

Progesterone

43

Estrogen peak in the follicular phase is the result of a switch to ___________ feedback regulation of the gonadotropins.

Positive

44

Inhibin B is produced mainly by the ___________, while inhibin A is derived mainly from the __________.

Follicle; Corpus luteum

The B version inhibits FSH

45

The major androgen from thecal cells is __________.

Androstenedione

46

What accounts for the LH surge?

Positive feedback regulation from LH and FSH, stimulate the hypothalamus to release GnRH, which stimulates LH release.

NOTE: FSH is inhibited by inhibin B, which is why there is no FSH surge to accompany the LH surge

47

A ________ secretion of GnRH is required to stimulate pituatary secretion of gonadotropins.

pulsitile

NOTE: If we give the pituatary a tonic signal, it shuts down and stops secreting. 

48

What are the three patterns of gonadotropin secretion in women?

Chichoral

  • High frequency changes occuring at 1-5 hour intervals

Diurnal

  • Intermittent frequency changes occuring across a 24-hr period

Trigintan

  • Low frequency changes occuring across a 29-30 day period

49

Estrogen feedback supresses the ______ (amplitude/frequency) of gonadotropin pulses. Progesterone feedback supresses the _______ (amplitude/frequency) of gonadotropin pulses.

Amplitude; frequency

50

What levels of estrogen trigger a switch to positive feedback control?

>300 pg/ml for >24 hours

51

What are the major types of oral contreceptives?

Estrogen-progesterone

  • Suppresses ovulation and supports secondary sex organ function
  • Used to regularize cells in some subjects

Progesterone mini pill

  • Blocks estrogen induced cervical mucus changes

The estrogen "morning after" pill

  • A high dose estrogen treatment
  • Believed to function by interfering with implantation
    • It is believed that the implantation site is chosen by the level of estrogen at the site

NOTE: Oral contraceptives suppres the cyclical pattern of all major reproductive hormones

52

Addition of _________ increases plasma half-life of oral contreceptives.

Ethinyl group

53

Non-oral contraceptives

Progestin Type

–Injection

  • Depo-provera (methoxy progesterone)
    • Effective for three months

–Implant

  • Norplant (levo norgestrel)
    • Effective for up to five years

 

54

Effects of oocyte aging

  • Increased incidence of birth defects
    • Increased downs syndrome
    • Increased Klinefelters Syndrome
  • Increased incidence of spontaneous abortion

55

What is the main cause of hirsutism?

Main cause is increased ovarian and/or adrenal androgen secretion

*Can be exacerbated by TeBG responses